World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Virtuality (gaming)

Article Id: WHEBN0015743966
Reproduction Date:

Title: Virtuality (gaming)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Virtual reality, Motorola 88000, Artificial reality, Projection augmented model, Sensorama
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Virtuality (gaming)

Virtuality is a line of virtual reality gaming machines produced by Virtuality Group, and found in video arcades in the early 1990s.[1] The machines deliver real time (less than 50ms lag) gaming via a stereoscopic visor, joysticks, and networked units for multi-player gaming.

A page from a Virtuality gaming system marketing piece showing the visette and controller.

Following Dr. Jonathan D Waldern’s pioneering VR PhD research from 1985-1990, supported by IBM Research Labs in Hursley, UK, Virtuality Group began life in 1985 as a garage startup called W Industries.[2] Waldern’s company developed many of the principal components including VR headsets, graphics subsystems, 3D trackers, exoskeleton data gloves and other enclosure designs. Fully developed by 1990, the VR integrated systems were launched at a computer graphics show at crystal palace and marketed to industry. The first two networked VR systems were sold to British Telecom Research Laboratories to experiment with networked telepresence applications. Many other systems were sold to corporations including Ford, IBM, Mitsubishi and Olin. Professional virtual reality systems included the launch of the Ford Galaxy in virtual reality and a virtual trading floor for the London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange (LIFFE).[3] However, the users' thrill of talking and mutually interacting with each other as virtual characters refocused the company's direction.

There are two types of units (referred to by the company as "pods"): One where the player stands up (SU), and the other where they sit down (SD). Both unit types utilize head-mounted displays (the "Visette") which each contain two LCD screens at resolutions of 276x372 each. Four speakers and a microphone were also built into the unit.[4] The SU units have a Polhemus 'Fast Track' magnetic source built into the waist high ring with a receiver in a free-moving joystick (the "Space Joystick"), while the SD design has the player sitting down with joysticks, a steering wheel, or aircraft yoke for control, depending on the game. The SD system was developed and launched in 1993 at Wembley Stadium in London.

Using the magnetic tracking system the stereoscopic display was able to react to head movements to change the display based on what the player would be "looking at" within the gaming environment. The position of the joystick (also magnetically tracked) controls movement of the player's "virtual hand", and a button on the joystick moves the player forwards in the game arena.

1000 Series

Introduced in October 1991,[5] and powered by an Amiga 3000,[5] the 1000CS and 1000SD have a distinctive helmet comprising a brightly coloured front panel with 'VIRTUALITY' embossed across it.

A page from early 90's marketing campaign for a Virtuality arcade game system.

1000CS games

  • Dactyl Nightmare - Multiplayer map with several levels and platforms; grenade launcher weapons and pterodactyl enemy.
  • Grid Busters - Robot shoot-em-up.
  • Hero - Locked door puzzle.
  • Legend Quest - Fantasy adventure.
  • VTOL – A Harrier Jump Jet simulator.

1000SD games

  • Battlesphere – Space battle.
  • Exorex – Robot warriors.
  • Total Destruction – Stock car racing.
  • Flying Aces - A biplane dogfight simulator. [6]

Virtuality's release surprised the existing VR industry. Despite crude graphics, it offered what Computer Gaming World in 1992 described as "all the necessary hallmarks of a fully immersive system at what, to many, is a cheap price. The main complaint ... has so far been its lack of resolution and software support".[7]

2000 Series

The 2000SU and SD models were introduced in 1994, powered by an Intel 486-PC and using Motorola 88110 processors for graphics rendering.[8] They have several more games, including Dactyl Nightmare 2 - Race For The Eggs!, Zone Hunter and Pac-Man VR.

There was also a 3000 series which was basically a 2000 Series machine upgraded with faster processor (Intel Pentium) and a rifle-type controller. They were offered in 2 Versions, a "normal" SU-3000 with a generic rifle-type controller and a "Total Recoil" Version with an official Winchester Replica Rifle-type controller that featured a CO2 powered Blowback mechanism. The "Total recoil" Version came with the game package "Quickshot Carnival" which featured Clay shooting and other target practice.[9] The "normal" generic-rifle version came with the game "Zero Hour" which was a First person shooter "on Rails" that was tailor made for the gun controller.

Cover page from an informational brochure for Virtuality's Project Elysium.

Project Elysium

Virtuality also worked to use their VR technology for more practical purposes. Project Elysium was a virtual reality system developed in 1995 by Virtuality for IBM for use in architectural and construction applications to give builders and clients an idea of how things would look once they were built, among other uses.[10][11] It was a "complete integrated VR workstation with development software" and it included a visette and hand-held control device called the "V-Flexor."[12][13]


Developed W. Industries (named after its founder Dr. Jonathan D. Waldern) and later renamed Virtuality Group Plc. The company was backed by Lord Wolfson of Wembly Group Plc, who with Apax Venture Capital company, were majority shareholders. There were five group subsidiaries. In 1997, rights to the entertainment machines (but not the Virtuality brand) were sold to CyberMind UK in a breakup of the group owing to a dramatic slump in demand for the expensive (then $65,000) theme park and Arcade machines, causing the manufacturing division (called Virtuality Entertainment) insolvency. Thereafter CyberMind UK was sold to Arcadian Virtual Reality LLC in 2004. In Australia, Fun City Entertainment Complex in Sunshine, Melbourne Victoria is the only venue in Australia running the SU 2000 models and is an agent for the sale and support of the Virtuality entertainment systems. During the company sale, Dr Waldern purchased all IP consumer technology rights, in addition to all Virtuality brand rights other than entertainment machines. In 1998 he launched a ($299) consumer VR display in partnership with Philips Electronics (under the brand name "Scuba") and also Takara, Japan. Combined, over 55,000 headsets were sold mostly in Japan.

The company is currently working on next generation optoelectronics technology and applications including applications for Virtual Reality.


  1. ^ Virtuality ties up Atari deal, The Independent, Mathew Horsman, March 17, 1995
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ Human Interface Technology Lab
  5. ^ a b Amiga History Guide: 1000CS
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ SU2000 Technical Manual
  9. ^
  10. ^ Camara, Antonio, and Raper, Jonathan. "Spacial Multimedia and Virtual Reality". CRC Press, 1999. p. 133.
  11. ^
  12. ^ Craig, Sherman, and Will. "Developing Virtual Reality Applications: Foundations of Effective Design". Morgan Kaufmann (publisher), 2009, p. 326.
  13. ^

External links

  • Owner of Virtuality Brand, Technology and new Product Development
  • Virtuality (Internet Archive)
  • Arcadian Virtual Reality LLC—the current owner of Virtuality SU, SD & CS Arcade Machines
  • Arcade History—where all the above games can be found
  • Cybermind—Overview of the different systems
  • Reality Crumbles: Whatever happened to VR?
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.