World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Labial–coronal consonant

Article Id: WHEBN0002231129
Reproduction Date:

Title: Labial–coronal consonant  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of consonants, Kirshenbaum, Labial–velar consonant, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Dental consonant
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Labial–coronal consonant

Tongue shape

A labial–coronal consonant is a consonant produced with two simultaneous articulators: With the lips ('labial'; a p, b, or m sound), and with the tongue (at the gums, an 'alveolar' t, d, or n sound, or further back, a 'post-alveolar' ch, j, or ny sound).

Several languages have been claimed to have such sounds, such as Margi and Bura in Nigeria. However, most researchers interpret them as having sequences of labial and coronal consonants, a rather common occurrence in Africa. The Yélî Dnye language of Rossel Island, Papua New Guinea, appears to be unique in having distinct labial–alveolar and labial–postalveolar places of articulation, as illustrated below. (The alveolars are fronted, and the post-alveolars only slightly retracted, so it may be best not to consider the latter to be retroflex as they are sometimes described.)

Stops in Yelî Dnye Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar Velar
Stop paa side taa knife t̠oo tongue kaa spear
Prenasalized stop mbee carry nde food n̠d̠e firewood ŋɡaa tree
Nasal maa road nii juice n̠aa feast ŋa lease
Stops in Yelî Dnye Labial-alveolar Labial–postalveolar Labial–velar
Stop t͡pənə lung t̠͡pənə horn k͡pene coconut bag
Prenasalized stop n͡md͡boo pulp n̠͡md̠͡boo many ŋ͡mɡ͡bo fog
Nasal n͡mo bird n̠͡mo we ŋ͡mo breast

Labial–coronal allophones

In some Ghanaian languages such as Dagbani, and Nzema, there are palatalized allophones of labial–velars. These are sometimes mistakenly referred to as labial–alveolars, though they actually have a post-alveolar or palatal articulation instead of a true alveolar one.

Something similar is found with the labialized alveolar stops in several Northwest and Northeast Caucasian languages such as Abkhaz and Lak. Although the double stop articulation may be more common, they are generally considered to be essentially labialized alveolars because the labial contact is light, and moreover the contact is between the inner surfaces of the lips, which are protruded as they are for [w]. This is quite different from the normal contact for [p] in these languages. The labial contact may also be realized as a trill. Compare the following minimal sets in Ubykh:

da now dʷa ~ d͡ba ~ d͡ʙa awl ba if
ta pregnant tʷa ~ t͡pa ~ t͡ʙa cherry pa to weave
tʼə ram tʷʼə ~ t͡pʼə ~ t͡ʙʼə to take out

Except for clicks, nearly all other doubly articulated consonants in the world are labial–velars. The labial-alveolars reported from some Chadic languages have upon investigation turned out to be /tp/, /db/, /nm/ and /dɓ/ sequences, not single consonants. (See Margi language.)


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.