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Groups as Graphs

By Smarandache, Florentin

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Book Id: WPLBN0002828318
Format Type: PDF eBook:
File Size: 1.39 MB
Reproduction Date: 7/23/2013

Title: Groups as Graphs  
Author: Smarandache, Florentin
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Education, Graph Theory
Collections: Authors Community, Mathematics
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Public Library
Member Page: Florentin Smarandache


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Smarandache, B. F., & Vasantha Kandasamy, W. B. (2013). Groups as Graphs. Retrieved from

This book has four chapters. Chapter one is introductory in nature. The reader is expected to have a good background of algebra and graph theory in order to derive maximum understanding of this research. The second chapter represents groups as graphs. The main feature of this chapter is that it contains 93 examples with diagrams and 18 theorems. In chapter three we describe commutative semigroups, loops, commutative groupoids and commutative rings as special graphs. The final chapter contains 52 problems.

Through this book, for the first time we represent every finite group in the form of a graph. The authors choose to call these graphs as identity graph, since the main role in obtaining the graph is played by the identity element of the group. This study is innovative because through this description one can immediately look at the graph and say the number of elements in the group G which are self-inversed. Also study of different properties like the subgroups of a group, normal subgroups of a group, p-sylow subgroups of a group and conjugate elements of a group are carried out using the identity graph of the group in this book. Merely for the sake of completeness we have defined similar type of graphs for algebraic structures like commutative semigroups, loops, commutative groupoids and commutative rings.

Table of Contents
Preface 5 Chapter One INTRODUCTION TO SOME BASIC CONCEPTS 7 1.1 Properties of Rooted Trees 7 1.2 Basic Concepts 9 Chapter Two GROUPS AS GRAPHS 17 Chapter Three IDENTITY GRAPHS OF SOME ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURES 89 3.1 Identity Graphs of Semigroups 89 3.2 Special Identity Graphs of Loops 129 3.3 The Identity Graph of a Finite Commutative Ring with Unit 134 Chapter Four SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 157 FURTHER READING 162 INDEX 164 ABOUT THE AUTHORS 168


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