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 Date: 2013, Volume: Second Edition Book Id: WPLBN0002828178 Subjects: Non Fiction, Education, Geometry ► Abstract Description DetailsIn The 2nd Conference on Combinatorics and Graph Theory of China (Aug. 16-19, 2006, Tianjing), I formally presented a combinatorial conjecture on mathematical sciences (abbreviated to CC Conjecture), i.e., a mathematical science can be reconstructed from or made by combinatorialization, implicated in the foreword of Chapter 5 of my book Automorphism groups of Maps, Surfaces and Smarandache Geometries (USA, 2005). This conjecture is essentially a philosophic notion for developing mathematical sciences of 21st century, which means that we can combine different fields into a union one and then determines its behavior quantitatively. It is this notion that urges me to research mathematics and physics by combinatorics, i.e., mathematical combinatorics beginning in 2004 when I was a post-doctor of Chinese Academy of Mathematics and System Science. It finally brought about me one self-contained book, the first edition of this book, published by InfoQuest Publisher in 2009. This edition is a revisited edition, also includes the development of a few topics discussed in the first edition.... Excerpt Details1.5 ENUMERATION TECHNIQUES 1.5.1 Enumeration Principle. The enumeration problem on a finite set is to count and find closed formula for elements in this set. A fundamental principle for solving this problem in general is on account of the enumeration principle: For finite sets X and Y , the equality |X| = |Y | holds if and only if there is a bijection f : X → Y . Certainly, if the set Y can be easily countable, then we can find a closed formula for elements in X.... Table of Contents DetailsContents Preface to the Second Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i Chapter 1. Combinatorial Principle with Graphs . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Multi-sets with operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1.1.1 Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.2 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1.3 Boolean algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1.4 Multi-Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 1.2 Multi-posets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.2.1 Partially ordered set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 1.2.2 Multi-Poset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3 Countable sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.3.1 Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.3.2 Countable set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1.4 Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.4.1 Graph. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 1.4.2 Subgraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.4.3 Labeled graph. . . . . . ...
 Date: 2015, Volume 1 Book Id: WPLBN0003468637 Subjects: Science Fiction, Drama and Literature, Adventure ► Abstract Description DetailsThe Great Galactic Treasure Hunt follows a number of individuals who for some reason or the other didn’t make it in the densely populated, highly civilised worlds of the big states; often consisting of a large number of inhabited planets with many billions of citizen on each world. There, life is safe and orderly, well-regulated, tidy and highly controlled. The vast majority of individuals of all described species lives on such worlds; and they like their life there. Yet, some just don’t fit in or feel that they don’t and some just can’t make it there. These take to the free areas of the galaxy, here anyone with the will to succeed can make it and find happiness; or the premature violent end, death by accident or predators, illness or starvation. Anyone can go there and be lucky to quench the thrust for freedom, success, and gold, or die by the plain old thirst of water. The Great Galactic Treasure Hunt begins with a few such adventurers who are on their way to new exploits, trying to test the limits of their luck again. Soon, some of them come together to better pursue their common interest with mutual support and travel together t... Excerpt DetailsWhen the gigantic trans-galactic cargo ship Ostia entered the hyperspace Arcus Stream, it was high noon local time right under it on a planet named Vato Lehibe. She had left the stationary orbit around Vato Lehibe early in the morning. Vato Lehibe was a booming mining planet. Its rock was of a deep red colour and contained high concentrations of aluminium and other metals. As the resources’ deposits began just under the surface, scrap mining was possible and profitable. The Arcus Stream was a kind of swift canal through hyperspace that allowed very fast travel, even for hyperspace terms. Outside the strong wall of the huge spaceship, wavelike trails of misty appearance rushed by. Actually, it was the Ostia that rushed through pas them. She was not only one of the biggest spaceships ever built but also one of the fastest. The Ostia carried passengers, good, and even other, smaller spaceships. Going at a rate of eighty to hundred light years per hour under good to optimal conditions, the Ostia was several times faster than the smaller spaceships she carried as cargo in her huge belly. Sometime in the afternoon, the Ostia was sched... Table of Contents DetailsNot Applicable
 Book Id: WPLBN0002828491 Subjects: Non Fiction, Science, Psychology ► Abstract Description DetailsProgress and development in our knowledge of the structure, form and function of the Universe, in the true sense of the word, its beauty and power, and its timeless presence and mystery, before which even the greatest intellect is awed and humbled, can spring forth only from an unshackled mind combined with a willingness to imagine beyond the boundaries imposed by that ossified authority by which science inevitably becomes, as history teaches us, barren and decrepit. Revealing the secrets of Nature, so that we truly see ‘the sunlit plains extended, and at night the wondrous glory of the everlasting stars’*, requires far more than mere technical ability and mechanical dexterity learnt from books and consensus. The dustbin of scientific history is replete with discredited consensus and the grand reputations of erudite reactionaries. Only by boldly asking questions, fearlessly, despite opposition, and searching for answers where most have not looked for want of courage and independence of thought, can one hope to discover for one’s self. From nothing else can creativity blossom and grow, and without which the garden of science can o... Excerpt DetailsAfter the experiments were completed, the life span of such “atoms” was calculated theoretically in Chapiro’s works [61,62,63]. His main idea was that nuclear forces, acting between nucleon and anti-nucleon, can keep them far away from each other, hindering their annihilation. For instance, a proton and anti-proton are located at the opposite side of the same orbit and move around the orbit’s centre. If the diameter of their orbit is much larger than the diameter of the “annihilation area”, they can be kept from annihilation (see fig. 3). But because the orbit, according to Quantum Mechanics, is an actual cloud spreading far around the average radius, at any radius between the proton and the anti-proton there is a probability that they can meet one another at the annihilation distance. Therefore the nucleon---anti-nucleon system annihilates in any case, as this system is unstable by definition having a life span no more than 10-20 sec.... Table of Contents DetailsContents Preface 5 Foreword 6 1 Unsolved Problems in Theoretical Physics 8 1.1. Problems related to elementary particles 8 1.2. Problems related to Unmatter 11 1.3 Some unresolved problems, questions and applications of the Brightsen nucleon cluster model 21 2 Unsolved Problems in Mathematics 24 2.1. Maximum number of circles 25 2.2. Consecutive sequence 25 2.3. Diophantine equation 25 2.4. Van Der Waerden Theorem 26 2.5. Differential equation with fractional power 26 2.6. Representation of odd number with prime 26 2.7. Magic square problem 27 2.8. Palindromic number and iteration 27 2.9. Non-Euclidean geometry by giving up its fifth postulate 28 2.10. Smarandache Geometry and Degree of Negation in Geometries 28 2.11. Non-Archimedean triangle theorem 33 2.12. The cubic Diophantine equation 33 2.13. Multispaces and applications in physics 34 3 Unsolved Problems in Astrophysics 35 3.1. Unsolved problems in Celestial Mechanics 35 3.2. Unsolved problems in Astrophysics 37 4 Unsolved Problems in Geophysics 45 4.1. Introduction 45 4.2. Some new questions 45 5 Unsolved Problems in Sorites Quantum Paradox and Sm...
 Book Id: WPLBN0003466796 Subjects: Non Fiction, Science, Chemistry ► Abstract Description DetailsThe 2000 year history of the atom and chemistry, from the Classic Greek Era to the present, is described in 800 pages, depicted with some 300 pictures and illustrations. This history of the atom and chemistry discusses the lives of about 180 chemists and physicists, through the evolution of several stages of development, representing the most important scientific accomplishments. The most significant discoveries in chemistry and physics are presented chronologically to illustrate their contributions to the creation of the chemical sciences during the last 21 centuries.... Excerpt DetailsINTRODUCTION It is a genuine pleasure and challenge for me to try to express the full extent of my emotions and reasons for writing this book on the STORY OF THE ATOM AND THE SCIENCES, with special reference to the CHEMICAL SCIENCES. In one sentence, I can distill the essence of the purpose for this study by simply stating that it has been a labor of love that transcended the written word because sentiments and ideas belong in the realm of the ethereal and the philosophical as well as in the domain of LITERATURE and SCIENCE. Ever since a young and impressionable student attending a country school in a community of a few hundred people, began to be introduced to the world of knowledge over 65 years ago, the sciences became to me what water is to fish, air is to birds and earth is to humanity. The introduction to the mathematical, physical, chemical and biological sciences felt like reading a beautiful poem or listening to a romantic melody. In essence, it was truly a joyful experience, full of the enigmatic, the mysterious and the fantastic, beyond my wildest imagination. The words used in the title of this book, were car... Table of Contents DetailsTABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY 7 THE CAVE MAN 7 ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF PERSPECTIVE AND SENSE OF DUTY 8 THE MIGRATORY AND THE SEDENTARY MAN 9 ABSTRACT ON THE ATOM AND ITS ENERGY 11 THE CLASSIC GREEK AND ROMAN PHILOSOPHERS 17 EMPEDOCLES (492-432 BC) Greek Philosopher 20 Proposed the four basic elements: earth, water, air and fire. DEMOCRITUS (470-380 BC) Greek Philosopher 22 The founder of the atomic theory of antiquity. CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (100-170) Greek Astronomer 24 Proponent of the geocentric theory of our solar system with the Earth and not the Sun at its center. ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF AN ORDERLY AND SYSTEMATIC UNIVERSE 25 THE ALCHEMY OF ANTIQUITY AND THE MIDDLE AGES 32 THE METAL INDUSTRY OF ANTIQUITY 33 Mercury, Copper, Bronze, Iron and Steel. GEBER (721-815) Arabian Alchemist 38 One of the first scholars and alchemists of the Islamic world. OMAR KHAYYAM (12th Century). Persian Scientist and Astronomer 38 Brilliant astronomer and alchemist of the 12th Century. BERNARDO TREVISAN (1406 -1490) Italian Alchemist 39 One of the most famous alchemists of th...
 Date: 2013, Volume 4 Book Id: WPLBN0002828442 Subjects: Non Fiction, Science, Technology ► Abstract Description DetailsThe fourth volume, in my book series of “Collected Papers”, includes 100 published and unpublished articles, notes, (preliminary) drafts containing just ideas to be further investigated, scientific souvenirs, scientific blogs, project proposals, small experiments, solved and unsolved problems and conjectures, updated or alternative versions of previous papers, short or long humanistic essays, letters to the editors... Excerpt DetailsThis short technical paper advocates a bootstrapping algorithm from which we can form a statistically reliable opinion based on limited clinically observed data, regarding whether an osteo-hyperplasia could actually be a case of Ewing’s osteosarcoma. The basic premise underlying our methodology is that a primary bone tumour, if it is indeed Ewing’s osteosarcoma, cannot increase in volume beyond some critical limit without showing metastasis. We propose a statistical method to extrapolate such critical limit to primary tumour volume. Our model does not involve any physiological variables but rather is entirely based on time series observations of increase in primary tumour volume from the point of initial detection to the actual detection of metastases.... Table of Contents DetailsCollected Eclectic Ideas - preface by the author.............................3 Contents....................................................6 ASTRONOMY..................................14 1. First Lunar Space Base, project proposal, by V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache..15 2. On Recent Discovery of New Planetoids in the Solar System and Quantization of Celestial System, by V. Christianto, F. Smarandache..................28 3. Open and Solved Elementary Questions in Astronomy, by Florentin Smarandache.. 36 BIOLOGY......................................40 4. Statistical Modeling of Primary Ewing Tumors of the Bone, by Sreepurna Malakar, Florentin Smarandache, Sukanto Bhattacharya, in in , Vol. 3, No. JJ05, 81-88, 2005................41 CALCULUS....................................53 5. A Triple Inequality with Series and Improper Integrals, by Florentin Smarandache, in Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences, Vol. 25E, No. 1, 215-217, 2006.........54 6. Immediate Calculation of Some Poisson Type Integrals Using SuperMathematics Circular Ex-Centric Functions, by Florentin Smarandache & Mircea Eugen................................
 Date: 2013, Volume 4 Book Id: WPLBN0002828448 Subjects: Non Fiction, Science, Technology ► Abstract Description DetailsThe fourth volume, in my book series of “Collected Papers”, includes 100 published and unpublished articles, notes, (preliminary) drafts containing just ideas to be further investigated, scientific souvenirs, scientific blogs, project proposals, small experiments, solved and unsolved problems and conjectures, updated or alternative versions of previous papers, short or long humanistic essays, letters to the editors... Excerpt DetailsThis short technical paper advocates a bootstrapping algorithm from which we can form a statistically reliable opinion based on limited clinically observed data, regarding whether an osteo-hyperplasia could actually be a case of Ewing’s osteosarcoma. The basic premise underlying our methodology is that a primary bone tumour, if it is indeed Ewing’s osteosarcoma, cannot increase in volume beyond some critical limit without showing metastasis. We propose a statistical method to extrapolate such critical limit to primary tumour volume. Our model does not involve any physiological variables but rather is entirely based on time series observations of increase in primary tumour volume from the point of initial detection to the actual detection of metastases.... Table of Contents DetailsCollected Eclectic Ideas - preface by the author.............................3 Contents....................................................6 ASTRONOMY..................................14 1. First Lunar Space Base, project proposal, by V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache..15 2. On Recent Discovery of New Planetoids in the Solar System and Quantization of Celestial System, by V. Christianto, F. Smarandache..................28 3. Open and Solved Elementary Questions in Astronomy, by Florentin Smarandache.. 36 BIOLOGY......................................40 4. Statistical Modeling of Primary Ewing Tumors of the Bone, by Sreepurna Malakar, Florentin Smarandache, Sukanto Bhattacharya, in in , Vol. 3, No. JJ05, 81-88, 2005................41 CALCULUS....................................53 5. A Triple Inequality with Series and Improper Integrals, by Florentin Smarandache, in Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences, Vol. 25E, No. 1, 215-217, 2006.........54 6. Immediate Calculation of Some Poisson Type Integrals Using SuperMathematics Circular Ex-Centric Functions, by Florentin Smarandache & Mircea Eugen................................
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