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Emma

By: Jane Austen

Excerpt: Emma Woodhouse. Handsome, clever, and rich, with a comfortable home and happy disposition, seemed to unite some of the best blessings of existence; and had lived nearly twenty-one years in the world with very little to distress or vex her....

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Falk a Reminiscence

By: Joseph Conrad

Excerpt: Several of us, all more or less connected with the sea, were dining in a small river-hostelry not more than thirty miles from London, and less than twenty from that shallow and dangerous puddle to which our coasting men give the grandiose name of ?German Ocean.? And through the wide windows we had a view of the Thames; an enfilading view down the Lower Hope Reach. But the dinner was execrable, and all the feast was for the eyes....

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Letters on England

By: Voltaire, 1694-1778

Introduction: Francois Marie Arouet, who called himself Voltaire, was the son of Francois Arouet of Poitou, who lived in Paris, had given up his office of notary two years before the birth of this his third son, and obtained some years afterwards a treasurer?s office in the Chambre des Comptes. Voltaire was born in the year 1694. He lived until within ten or eleven years of the outbreak of the Great French Revolution, and was a chief leader in the movement of thought that preceded the Revolution. Though he lived to his eighty-fourth year, Voltaire was born with a weak body....

Contents LETTER I.?ON THE QUAKERS .............................................................................................................................. 6 LETTER II.?ON THE QUAKERS .......................................................................................................................... 10 LETTER III.?ON THE QUAKERS ......................................................................................................................... 12 LETTER IV.?ON THE QUAKERS......................................................................................................................... 16 LETTER V.?ON THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND .................................................................................................. 20 LETTER VI.?ON THE PRESBYTERIANS............................................................................................................ 23 LETTER VII.?ON THE SOCINIANS, OR ARIANS, OR ANTITRINITARIANS ............................................. 24 LETTER VIII.?ON THE PARLIAMENT ............................................................................................................... ...

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Middlemarch

By: George Eliot

Excerpt: Prelude; Who that cares much to know the history of man, and how the mysterious mixture behaves under the varying experiments of Time, has not dwelt, at least briefly, on the life of Saint Theresa, has not smiled with some gentleness at the thought of the little girl walking forth one morning hand-in-hand with her still smaller brother, to go and seek martyrdom in the country of the Moors? Out they toddled from rugged Avila, wide-eyed and helpless-looking as two fawns, but with human hearts, already beating to a national idea; until domestic reality met them in the shape of uncles, and turned them back from their great resolve. That child pilgrimage was a fit beginning. Theresa?s passionate, ideal nature demanded an epic life: what were many-volumed romances of chivalry and the social conquests of a brilliant girl to her? Her flame quickly burned up that light fuel; and, fed from within, soared after some illimitable satisfaction, some object which would never justify weariness, which would reconcile self-despair with the rapturous consciousness of life beyond self. She found her epos in the reform of a religious order....

Table of Contents: Book I ?Miss Brooke, 1 -- Prelude, 1 -- Chapter I., 3 -- Chapter II., 10 -- Chapter III., 16 -- Chapter IV., 25 -- Chapter V., 31 -- Chapter VI., 38 -- Chapter VII., 47 -- Chapter VIII., 51 -- Chapter IX., 55 -- Chapter X., 65 -- Chapter XI., 74 -- Chapter XII., 82 -- Book II ?Old and Young., 97 -- Chapter XIII., 97 -- Chapter XIV., 104 -- Chapter XV., 113 -- Chapter XVI., 124 -- Chapter XVII., 135 -- Chapter XVIII., 142 -- Chapter XIX., 151 -- Chapter XX., 154 -- Chapter XXI., 164 -- Chapter XXII., 170 -- Book III?Waiting For Death., 183 -- Chapter XXIII., 183 -- Chapter XXIV., 192...

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Easy Lessons in Einstein

By: Edwin E. Slosson

Published in 1920, Slosson’s Easy Lessons in Einstein is one of the first popularizations of Einstein’s theory of relativity. This book is meant to convey to the general reader the ideas of relativity in non-mathematical terms, by the use of thought experiements and pop-cultural references of the day. This edition also includes a short article by Einstein on Time, Space and Gravitation. (Summary by JoeD)...

Instruction, Nature, Science

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Oglinzi Paralele şi Perpendiculare, Florentin Smarandache, Paradoxismul şi Viteza Supraluminală (Mirrors Parallel and Perpendicular : Florentin Smarandache Paradoxism and Light Speed)

By: Florentin Smarandache

Volumul de faţă adună o mână de studii, articole şi consemnări din presa românească despre scriitorul şi omul de ştiinţă Florentin Smarandache, mişcarea lite-rar-artistică pe care a iniţiat-o (Paradoxismul) şi una dintre teoriile pe care le-a dezvoltat (Viteza Supra-luminală); câteva mesaje adresate acestuia şi o addenda ilustrată vin să contureze peisajul ştiinţific, artistic şi uman în care se mişcă unul dintre cei mai prolifici, mai interesanţi şi mai apreciaţi români ai momentului. This volume gathers a handful of studies, articles and records of Romanian press about the writer and scientist Smarandache rare literary and artistic movement that initiated it (Paradoxism) and one of the theories he developed (Over-luminal speed) address and a few messages come to shape the landscape addenda illustrated scientific, artistic and human that moves one of the most prolific, most interesting and Romanian appreciate the moment....

Florentin Smarandache este unul dintre cei mai cunoscuți scriitor români în afara ţării natale. Activităţile sale literare şi ştiinţifice sunt impresionante. Peste 3.000 de pagini de jurnal nepublicate (datorate călătoriei şi traiului în jurul lumii, dornic să ştie şi să întâlnească oameni şi să studieze diferite culturi). La Arizona State University, Hayden Library, în Tempe, Arizona, există o mare colecţie specială numită “The Florentin Smarandache Papers” (care are mai mult de 30 de picioare liniare / linear feet) cu cărţi, reviste, manuscrise, documente, CD-uri, DVD-uri, benzi video realizate de el sau despre opera sa. Altă colecţie specială “The Florentin Smarandache Papers” se află la The University of Texas, la Austin, Archives of American Mathematics (în cadrul Centrului American de Istorie). ...

NORMA SMARANDACHE ..................................... 7 Florentin Smarandache: Fişă de dicţionar ..................................... 9 Nominalizarea lui Florentin Smarandache pentru Premiul Nobel pentru literatură (Geo Stroe)..... 18 Fizicianul care l-a contrazis pe Einstein (Florin Grieraşu) ..................................... 25 FAŢETELE PARADOXULUI ..................................... 37 De la paradox la paradoxism (Titu Popescu) ............................... 38 De la multistructură şi multispaţiu la “recepţionarea multidimensională estetică şi paradoxistă Smarandache” (Ştefan Vlăduţescu) ..................................... 51 Teoria S-negării (Olga Popescu) ..................................... 54 Antiscrisori paradoxiste (Ion Segărceanu) ..................................... 57 Antologia a şasea paradoxistă în cotidianul internaţional (Marinela Preoteasa) ..................................... 61 MATEMATICA LITERELOR ..................................... 65 Libertatea s-a născut la mahala (Tudor Negoescu) ..................................... 66 Florentin Smarandache: poetul matematician (Ion M...

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A Brief History of Everything : Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang

By: Manjunath Ramu

A BRIEF HISTORY OF EVERYTHING: Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang is a clear, readable and self – contained introduction to chaos of physics and related areas of science. It bridges the gap and addresses the questions that are of interest to us all or at least to all of us reading this book and lead us to study science in the first place. The book concentrates on presenting the subject from the understanding perspective of physics and brings the reader right up to date with curious aspects of physics established over the last few centuries. Necessary background information on physics is included but advanced mathematics is avoided. The book assumes science a journey not a destination and the advance of knowledge is an infinite progression towards a goal that forever recedes. This book will be of interest to students, teachers and general science readers interested in fundamental ideas of physics. ...

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Prin Bătrâna Europă : The Old Europe

By: Florentin Smarandache

Florentin Smarandache a lansat un nou gen literar-artistic, adaptat cerinţelor cititorului şi scriitorului contemporan grăbit, numit FOTOJURNAL INSTANTANEU bazat pe abundenţa de imagini corespunzătoare textului, plus scrierea directă, rapidă, la prima mȃnă, pe locul vizitei, cu verbe puţine, şi exprimări scurte, neşlefuite. Smarandache launched a new literary genre, artistic, adapted to the contemporary reader and writer hurriedly called INSTANT FOTOJURNAL appropriate image based on the abundance of text, plus direct writing, fast at first mȃnă on the site visit, with fewer verbs and expressions short, unpolished....

08.07.2010 Viaţa în Franţa e mai lejeră. În America e mai stresantă. Am scris pe foaia de lichidare că mi ar plăcea să revin în Fran-ţa ca lucrător (cercetător sau profesor la vreo Universitate). Cei de la HAL (prescurtare de la Hyper Articles en Ligne – Articole în exces online; este o arhivă deschisă gesti-onată de către Centrul pentru Comunicarea Ştiinţifică Directă, din Franţa) pretind că au o arhivă deschisă tuturor savanţilor, dar nu este deloc liberă, cum ar trebui. Articolele mele de matematică tradiţiona-lă (nu de avangardă, cum mi-e stilul) aşteaptă cu săptămânile pentru a fi validate. Cele de fizică sunt respinse (de exemplu, unul despre nematerie – unmatter, în engleză): imediat. 08.07.2010     Life in France is lighter. In America's most stressful. I wrote the winding sheet that I would like to return to Fran-ce as a worker (researcher or professor at a university).     Most of the HAL (short for Hyper Articles en Ligne - Online Articles excess, is an open archive pol-Onate by the Centre for Direct Scientific Communication, France) claim to have an archive open to all scientists, but it is not free , as it ...

Prefaţă, de Mircea Monu ………………………………… 4 Călătorul călătorului, eseu de George Anca …………… 9 FRANŢA (la Brest) ……………………………………… 12 UNGARIA (la Pécs) …………………………………… 41 FRANŢA (la Brest, Carnac şi la Paris) ………………… 51 ANGLIA (la Londra) …………………………………… 96 SCOŢIA (la Edinburg) ………………………………… 137 În loc de postfaţă ………………………………………… 165...

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Today's Take on Einstein's Relativity

By: Homer B. Titon and Florentin Smarandache

In a lecture that Einstein gave to the Prussian Academy of Sciences in 1921, he said the following: "Geometry predicates nothing about relations of real things, but only geometry together with the purport of physical laws can do so... The idea of the measuring rod and the idea of the clock contained with it in the theory of relativity do not find their exact correspondence in the real world. It is also clear that the solid body and the clock do not in the conceptual edifice of physics play the part of irreducible elements, but that of composite structures, which may not play any independent part in theoretical physics." / Einstein then went on to say that, in spite of the foregoing comment, we should temporarily support the use of the length and time transformations as though they were physically real....

Preface. 5 -- About the cover 9 -- Welcome from Campus President, DrRaul Ramirez. 10 -- Registrants/Attendees. 11 -- Keynotes. 12 -- The light barrier: its construction and demolition. 14 -- Jim Malmberg. 17 -- DrDavid Iadevaia. 25 -- DrLarissa BBorrisova & Dmitri DRabounski. 29 -- DrFlorentin Smarandache. 36 -- Greg Holmberg AKA BBash. 43 -- Homer BTilton. 83 -- Credits . 100 -- Photos. 101 --...

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Sidelights on Relativity

By: Albert Einstein

Sidelights on Relativity contains ETHER AND THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY, an address delivered on May 5th, 1920, in the University of Leyden; and GEOMETRY AND EXPERIENCE, an expanded form of an address to the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin on January 27th, 1921. (Intro from Project Gutenberg)...

Nature, Science

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Meditations on First Philosophy

By: René Descartes

After several years working on a treatise putting forth his mechanistic philosophy and physics, Descartes shelved the project when his contemporary, Galileo, was charged with heresy. That work, The World, was only published after Descartes’ death. It seems that Descartes must have had this, in part at least, in mind when writing his more famous philosophical works. This is especially clear in the Meditations , not only in the obsequiousness of the Letter of Dedication, but also in the specific mode of argument, which does not seek merely to found science upon grounds acceptable to religious authority, but to specifically found a mathematical science; one which clearly privileges mathematical demonstrations even over common sense judgments based upon everyday and constant experience. His Copernicanism, put forth posthumously in The World, would require just such a defense. The Meditations are a central work of early modern philosophy, and play a crucial role in the conceptual development of basic perspectives and problems in the Western tradition, including substance dualism, external world skepticism, and the modern notion of the su...

Philosophy

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Quantization and Discretization at Large Scales

By: Florentin Smarandache, Editor; V. Christianto, Editor

A line of thought explored herein is the correspondence between cosmological phenomena and condensed matter physics, and therefore we can think that the quantization of orbit distances can be caused by superfluid helium quantization. This issue is explored by F. Smarandache and V. Christianto. Moreover, F. Smarandache also discusses possible new era of research that is pertaining to superluminal physics and instantaneous physics. Ion Patrascu and D. Rabounski discuss superluminality from their perspectives. And M. Pereira discusses his Hypergeometrical Universe model....

Preface III Contents IV Planetary orbits in Solar and Extrasolar systems (A. Rubcic & J. Rubcic) Fizika A, 19 no.3, 2010...................1 Areal velocities of planets and their comparison (P. Pintr, V. Per\inova% , A. Luks\) unpubl. 2011...................15 Distribution of distances in solar system (P. Pintr, V. Perinova , A. Luks) Chaos , Soliton, Fractals 2007...................27 New cosmological model of universe and possible quantization of the Hubble parameter (P.Pintr) unpublished paper, Dec. 2011...................39 Do we really understand the solar system? (M. Pitkanen) Nov. 27th 2011...................50 Inflation and TGD (M. Pitkanen) Dec. 10th 2011...................70 QCD and TGD (M. Pitkanen) Dec. 19th 2011...................78 Quantum arithmetics and the relationship between real and p-adic physics (M. Pitkanen) Dec. 12th 2011...................94 A blind pilot: who is super-luminal observer? (D. Rabounski) Progress in Physics Vol.2, 2008................126 Scientist deduced the existence of particles with faster-than-light speeds recently discovered by CERN. (I. Patrascu) Progress in Physics Vol.4, 20...

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THE THEORY OF INTERPRETIVE RELATIVITY: A UNIFIED MAP OF LITERARY THEORY

By: John Salvatore Guagliardo

The Theory Of Interpretive Relativity: A Unified Map Of Literary Theory is a comprehensive study organizing and mapping all literary interpretive theory, from classical philosophy to postmodern theory, into one formulaic model. Interpretive Relativity uses, for its method of organizational strategy, the philosophy of relativism to explain how all theoretical interpretation compliment one another rather than contradict one another. This thesis uses extensive graphs and illustrations to aid in the visualization of how mapping theoretical interpretations is possible. The piece of literature, work of art, that is used through out the study is Shakespeare’s Hamlet. In other words, this thesis show how the philosophy of Einstein’s general theory of relativity could be applied to Hamlet....

“The long concatenations of simple and easy reasoning which geometricians use in achieving their most difficult demonstrations gave me occasion to imagine that all matters which may enter the human mind were interrelated in the same fashion.” -- René Descartes ...

I. INTRODUCTION: MATHEMATICAL CONSTRUCT STRATEGIES FOR GRAPHING LITERARY INTERPRETATION THEORIES INTO A VISUAL FIGURE, DEFINING TERMS 1 II. MAPPING LITERARY THEORY: DEFINING THE BODY OF LITERATURE, Ln, AND MESSAGE, EMBODIED IN ART, Ln 10 III. FORMING THE X AXIS: SETTING VALUES FOR X AS SIGN, SIGNIFICATION, AND SIGNAL (X1, X2, X3) 18 X1: Sign, Encoding Meaning 21 X2: Signification: The Three Aspects to the Value X2, Concept in a Medium, X21, X22, X23 23 X3: Signal, Decoding Meaning Plotting the 2s OF B’s X31, X32, X33 30 IV. FORMING THE Y AXIS: THE AUDIENCE’S INFINITE MULTIFARIOUS “REALIZATION” 36 The Search for 1: The Messenger and the Author 38 Y 1: The Author’s text 45 Y 2: The Text 50 Y 3: The World 54 Y 4: The Reader 57 V. FORMING THE Z AXIS: VALUES FOR Z, APPLIED RHETORICAL IDEOLOGY 65 Z 1: Marxist Literary Criticism 67 Z 2: Deconstruction Criticism 71 Z 3: Multicultural Literary Criticism 77 Z 4: Psychoanalytic Literary Criticism 80 Z 5: Liberation Literary Criticism 84 VI. CONCLUSION 87...

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Age of The Universe Paradox: Comprehensive Study Of Mysteries In Science

By: Cres Huang

The question is, will we ever know if there are objects outside of the detectable universe radiating in wave length longer than CBR? We only measure the universe with visual radiations. Doesn't it seem that the age of the universe is determined by the size of our telescope? Nevertheless, there are activities of elementary particles which can not be detected by us? Isn't' it impossible to picture how far some active objects, say neutrinos, can be other than infinite. ...

Suppose we have perfect telescope that is limitless in range; And, we don't see anything when we look pass all objects; Can we say we have reached the edge of the Space or Universe? Or, there is infinity beyond Space? ...

1 Introduction 1 2 Probability Function of Doppler Effect 3 NED’s Redshift Survey Database 4 Estimate Age of The Universe Based On NED Database 5 Cosmic Background Radiation 6 Can We Really Tell The Size & Age of The Universe? 7 Appendix II: Accumulated Probability Distribution References...

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 2, July 2009

By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces,. . . , etc.. Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretical physics; Mathematical theory on gravitatio...

Contents Tangent Space and Derivative Mapping on Time Scale BY EMIN ¨OZYILMAZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 Basic Properties Of Second Smarandache Bol Loops BY T.G.JA´IY´E O. L´A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Smarandachely Precontinuous maps and Preopen Sets in Topological Vector Spaces BY SAYED ELAGAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Path Double Covering Number of Product Graphs BY A. NAGARAJAN, V. MAHESWARI, S. NAVANEETHAKRISHNAN. . . . . . 27 Some Remarks on Fuzzy N-Normed Spaces BY SAYED ELAGAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 σ-Coloring of the Monohedral Tiling BY M. E. BASHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 The Forcing Domination Number of Hamiltonian Cubic Graphs BY H.ABDOLLAHZADEH AHANGAR AND PUSHPALATHA L. . . . . . . . . . 53 Permutation Polynomials modulo n, n 6= 2w and Latin Squares BY VADIRAJA BHATTA G. R. and SHANKAR B. R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Graphoidal Tree d - Cover BY S.SOMASUNDARAM, A.NAGARAJAN AND G.MA...

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Progress in Physics : The Journal on Advanced Studies in Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Including Related Themes from Mathematics

By: Florentin Smarandache

Progress in Physics has been created for publications on advanced studies in theoretical and experimental physics, including related themes from mathematics. All submitted papers should be professional, in good English, containing a brief review of a problem and obtained results. All submissions should be designed in LATEX format using Progress in Physics template. This template can be downloaded from Progress in Physics home page http://www.geocities.com/ptep_online. Abstract and the necessary information about author(s) should be included into the papers. To submit a paper, mail the file(s) to Chief Editor. All submitted papers should be as brief as possible. Short articles are preferable. All that has been accepted for the online issue of Progress in Physics is printed in the paper version of the journal. To order printed issues, contact Chief Editor. This journal is non-commercial, academic edition. It is printed from private donations....

According to the Dictionary of Mathematics (Borowski and Borwein, 1991 [1]), the paradox is “an apparently absurd or self-contradictory statement for which there is prima facie support, or an explicit contradiction derived from apparently unexceptionable premises”....

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 4, December 2010

By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces,. . . , etc.. Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretical physics; Mathematical theory on gravitatio...

On (∈ vq)-Fuzzy Bigroup Abstract: In this paper, we introduce the concept of fuzzy singleton to bigroup, and uses it to define (∈ v q)- fuzzy bigroup and discuss its properties. We investigate whether or not the fuzzy point of a bigroup will belong to or quasi coincident with its fuzzy set if the constituent fuzzy points of the constituting subgroups both belong to or quasi coincident with their respective fuzzy sets, and vise versa. We also prove that a fuzzy bisubset μ is an (∈ vq)-fuzzy subbigroup of the bigroup G if its constituent fuzzy subsets are (∈ vq)-fuzzy subgroups of their respective subgroups among others. Key Words: Bigroups, fuzzy bigroups, fuzzy singleton on bigroup, (∈ vq)- fuzzy subgroups, (∈ vq)- fuzzy bigroup ...

Contents On (∈ vq)- Fuzzy Bigroup BY AKINOLA L.S. and AGBOOLA A.A.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 Connectivity of Smarandachely Line Splitting Graphs BY B.BASAVANAGOUD and VEENA MATHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 Separation for Triple-Harmonic Di?erential Operator in Hilbert Space BY E.M.E.ZAYED and S.A.OMRAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Classification of Differentiable Graph BY A. El-Abed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 On Equitable Coloring of Helm Graph and Gear Graph BY KALIRAJ.K and VERNOLD VIVIN.J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 On the Roman Edge Domination Number of a Graph BY K. EBADI, E. KHODADADI and L. PUSHPALATHA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 The Upper Monophonic Number of a Graph BY J.JOHN and S.PANCHALI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Some Results on Pair Sum Labeling of Graphs BY R. PONRAJ, J.VIJAYA XAVIER PARTHIPAN and R.KALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Weierstrass Formula for Minimal Surface in the Special Three-Dimensional Kenmotsu Manifold K with _-...

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 3, October 2008

By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces,. . . , etc.. Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretical physics; Mathematical theory on gravitatio...

Extending Homomorphism Theorem to Multi-Systems Abstract: The multi-laterality of WORLD implies multi-systems to be its best candidate model for ones cognition on nature, which is also included in an ancient book of China, TAO TEH KING written by Lao Zi, an ancient philosopher of China. Then how it works to mathematics, not suspended in thought? This paper explains this action by mathematical logic on mathematical systems generalized to Smarandache systems, or such systems with combinatorial structures, i.e., combinatorial systems, and shows how to extend the homomorphism theorem in abstract algebra to multi-systems or combinatorial systems. All works in this paper are motivated by a combinatorial speculation of mine which is reformed on combinatorial systems and can be also applied to geometry. Key Words: Homomorphism theorem, multi-system, combinatorial system. ...

Contents Extending Homomorphism Theorem to Multi-Systems BY LINFAN MAO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 A Double Cryptography Using the Smarandache Keedwell Cross Inverse Quasigroup BY T. G. JA´IY´EOL´A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 On the Time-like Curves of Constant Breadth in Minkowski 3-Space BY SUHA YILMAZ AND MELIH TURGUT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 On the Basis Number of the Strong Product of Theta Graphs with Cycles BY M.M.M. JARADAT, M.F. JANEM AND A.J. ALAWNEH. . . . . . . . . . . .40 Smarandache Curves in Minkowski Space-time BY MELIH TURGUT AND S¨UHA YILMAZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 The Characterization of Symmetric Primitive Matrices with exponent n − 3 BY LICHAO, HUANGFU AND JUNLIANG CAI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 The Crossing Number of the Circulant Graph C(3k − 1; {1, k}) BY JING WANG AND YUANQIU HUANG. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 On the Edge Geodetic and k-Edge Geodetic Number of a Graph BY A.P. SANTHAKUMARAN AND S.V. ULLAS CHANDRAN. . . . . . . . . .85 Simple Path Cove...

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Progress in Physics : The Journal on Advanced Studies in Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Including Related Themes from Mathematics, Volume 2

By: Florentin Smarandache

Progress in Physics has been created for publications on advanced studies in theoretical and experimental physics, including related themes from mathematics. All submitted papers should be professional, in good English, containing a brief review of a problem and obtained results. All submissions should be designed in LATEX format using Progress in Physics template. This template can be downloaded from Progress in Physics home page http://www.geocities.com/ptep_online. Abstract and the necessary information about author(s) should be included into the papers. To submit a paper, mail the file(s) to Chief Editor. All submitted papers should be as brief as possible. Short articles are preferable. All that has been accepted for the online issue of Progress in Physics is printed in the paper version of the journal. To order printed issues, contact Chief Editor. This journal is non-commercial, academic edition. It is printed from private donations....

As shown, experiments registered unmatter: a new kind of matter whose atoms include both nucleons and anti-nucleons, while their life span was very short, no more than 10-20sec. Stable states of unmatter can be built on quarks and anti-quarks: applying the unmatter principle here it is obtained a quantum chromodynamics formula that gives many combinations of unmatter built on quarks and anti-quarks....

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 1, January 2008

By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics is a fully refereed international journal, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published in USA quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandachemulti-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces,· · · , etc.. Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretic...

Abstract: Let G be a group having a partially closed subset S such that S contains the identity element of G and each element in S has an inverse in S. Such subsets of G are called halfsubgroups of G. If a halfsubgroup S generates the group G, then S is called a halfsubgroup generating the group or hsgg in short. In this paper we prove some results on hsggs of a group. Order class of a group are special halfsubgroupoids. Elementary abelian groups are characterized as groups with maximum special halfsubgroupoids. Order class of a group with unity forms a typical halfsubgroup. Key words: halfsubgroup, hsgg, order class of an element. AMS(2000): 20Kxx, 20L05....

Halfsubgroups BY ARUN S. MUKTIBODH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01 Flexibility of Embeddings of a Halin Graph on the Projective Plane BY HAN REN and YUN BAI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .06 Curvature Equations on Combinatorial Manifolds with Applications to Theoretical Physics BY LINFAN MAO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 A Pair of Smarandachely Isotopic Quasigroups and Loops of the Same Variety BY T. G. JA´IY´EOL´A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 A Revision to G¨odel’s Incompleteness Theorem by Neutrosophy BY YUHUA FU and ANJIE FU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 On the basis Number and the Minimum Cycle Bases of the Wreath Product of Two Wheels BY M.M.M. JARADAT and M.K. AL-QEYYAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Theory of Relativity on the Finsler Spacetime BY SHENGLIN CAO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 On the Number of Graceful Trees BY GUANGXUAN WANG. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 ...

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