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Hadron Models and Related New Energy Issues

By: Florentin Smarandache; V. Christianto

The present book covers a wide-range of issues from alternative hadron models to their likely implications in New Energy research, including alternative interpretation of low energy reaction (coldfusion) phenomena. While some of these discussions may be found a bit too theoretical, our view is that once these phenomena can be put into rigorous theoretical framework, thereafter more 'openminded' physicists may be more ready to consider these New Energy methods more seriously. Our basic proposition in the present book is that considering these new theoretical insights, one can expect there are new methods to generate New Energy technologies which are clearly within reach of human knowledge in the coming years....

In the preceding article we argue that biquaternionic extension of Klein-Gordon equation has numerical solution with sinusoidal form, which differs appreciably from conventional Yukawa potential. In the present article we interpret and compare this result from the viewpoint of EQPET/TSC model described by Takahashi. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition....

Peer-reviewers ii Abstract iii Preface by D. Rapoport iv Contents vi Foreword viii Prologue: Socio-economic impact of New Energy technologies xi Contributors to this volume xiv Short biography of Contributors xv Free energy and Topological Geometrodynamics 1. Nuclear string hypothesis – M. Pitkanen 1 2. The notion of free-energy and many-sheeted Space-Time concept – M. Pitkanen 44 3. Prediction and calculation of New Energy development – Fu Yuhua 111 4. Some unsolved problems in the physics of elementary particle – V. Christianto & F. Smarandache (PiP, vol. 3 no. 4, 2007) 127 5. About some unsolved problems in physics – M. Pitkanen 132 Beyond Standard Model, Unmatter and Yang-Mills Field 6. Bifurcations and pattern formation in particle physics: an introductory study – E. Goldfain (submitted to APS conference, 2008) 151 7. Dynamics of Neutrino oscillations and the Cosmological constant problem – E. Goldfain 168 8. Fractional dynamics and the Standard Model of Elementary particles – E. Goldfain (Comm. In Nonlin. Science and Numerical. Simulation, 2007) 176 9. A new possible form of Matter, Unmatter – formed by parti...

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Introduction to Neutrosophic Logic

By: Charles Ashbacher

As someone who works heavily in both math and computers, I can truly appreciate the role that logic plays in our modern world. One cannot understand the foundations of mathematics while lacking knowledge of the basics of logic and how proofs are constructed. Two of the first classes I took as a graduate student in mathematics were in the foundations of mathematics, and hardly a day goes by where I do not use some topic from those courses. Logic is also a fundamental component of advanced computer classes. I am currently teaching advanced courses in assembly language programming and computer organization. Reference is constantly being made to how the rules of logic are incorporated into the fundamental circuits of a computer. The logic used in these classes is known as classical or Boolean logic. Neutrosophic logic is an extension of classical logic, but as you will see in the book, there are two intermediate steps between them. Neutrosophic logic is yet another idea generated by Florentin Smarandache, who seems to be a perpetual idea machine. Like classical logic, it can be used in many ways, everywhere from statistics to quantum me...

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Begin the Adventure : How to Break the Light Barrier

By: Florentin Smarandache

For most of the 20th century, both relativity and star travel fascinated this writer. The reasons Albert Einstein concluded there is an absolute barrier at the speed of light seemed at first clear, then later not so clear upon closer examination. "The speed of light relative to what?" I often asked anyone who would listen. The common response was, "Light needs no specification of that kind; its speed is the same no matter who measures it." "That's true." I would respond; "That's just the second postulate of special relativity which is not in doubt; but that postulate applies to light, and we're talking about rocketships here." However it seemed that no one understood what I was saying. By referring to the universal constant c= 299.792 458 megameters per second as "the speed of light," we paint ourselves into a logical corner in which light is automatically taken as the subject of discussion even when it is not. The careful reader will know not to immediately think "light" when he hears or reads "the speed of light." But it is better to have a neutral name for that universal constant. It has been called the Lorentz speed; Ignaz...

One's reach should exceed one's grasp. Thus we reach for Alpha Centauri with a round-trip manned and womanned mission as the proposed overarching goal under a clear plan of exploration - a grand experiment described in later chapters. Whether or not we succeed in grasping the goal under this or under any plan is not as important as it is to set a definite plan and work towards its goal. The plan outlined here is in two phases: Phase one has a high probability of success, given the required propulsion system; the chances of phase two working will be indicated by results obtained from phase one. A fundamental problem is the one of propulsion. It is important to the working of this plan, a highly optimistic one, that the engine be capable of a sustained acceleration of ¼ G in phase one and 1G in phase two. (1G = 9.80665 m/s2) Such an engine is within the reach of present ideas....

Prefaces. 6 -- Ch.1. Introduction . 11 -- Ch.2. The Human Barrier. 14 -- Ch.3. An Overview. 18 -- Ch.4. Acceleration Due to Light Pressure. 21 -- Ch.5. Light Sailing is Not All There Is. 27 -- Ch.6. Einstein's Light Barrier. 32 -- Ch.7. The Phase One Experiment: The First Starship. 37 -- Ch.8. The Phase Two Experiment: Alpha Centauri or Bust!. 45 -- Ch.9. Voyage to the Center of the Galaxy. 50 -- Ch.10. An Hypothesis: There is no Speed Barrier in the Universe. 52 --...

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Principa Mathematica

By: Isaac Newton

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy", often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton, first published 5 July 1687. Newton also published two further editions, in 1713 and 1726. The Principia states Newton's laws of motion, forming the foundation of classical mechanics, also Newton's law of universal gravitation, and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically). The Principia is "justly regarded as one of the most important works in the history of science". The French mathematical physicist Alexis Clairaut assessed it in 1747: "The famous book of mathematical Principles of natural Philosophy marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics. The method followed by its illustrious author Sir Newton, spread the light of mathematics on a science which up to then had remained in the darkness of conjectures and hypotheses." A more recent assessment has been that while acceptance of Newton's theories was not immediate, by the end of a century after publication in 1687, "no one could deny...

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Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 2, No. 3, 2006

By: Shaanxi Xi'an, Editor

Scientia Magna is published annually in 200-300 pages per volume and 1,000 copies on topics such as mathematics, physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and linguistics. ...

x3. Some Observations Some observations about the Pseudo-Smarandache Function are given below : Remark 3.1. Kashihara raised the following questions (see Problem 7 in [1]) : (1) Is there any integer n such that Z(n) > Z(n + 1) > Z(n + 2) > Z(n + 3)? (2) Is there any integer n such that Z(n) < Z(n + 1) < Z(n + 2) < Z(n + 3)? The following examples answer the questions in the affirmative: ...

A. Majumdar : A note on the Pseudo-Smarandache function 1 S. Gupta : Primes in the Smarandache deconstructive sequence 26 S. Zhang and C. Chen : Recursion formulae for Riemann zeta function and Dirichlet series 31 A. Muktibodh : Smarandache semiquasi near-rings 41 J. Sandor : On exponentially harmonic numbers 44 T. Jayeo. la : Parastrophic invariance of Smarandache quasigroups 48 M. Karama : Perfect powers in Smarandache n-expressions 54 T. Jayeo. la : Palindromic permutations and generalized Smarandache palindromic permutations 65 J. Sandor : On certain inequalities involving the Smarandache function 78 A. Muktibodh : Sequences of pentagonal numbers 81 J. Gao : On the additive analogues of the simple function 88 W. Zhu : On the primitive numbers of power p 92 A. Vyawahare : Smarandache sums of products 96 N. Yuan : On the solutions of an equation involving the Smarandache dual function 104 H. Zhou : An in¯nite series involving the Smarandache power function SP(n) 109...

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Neutrosophic Physics : More Problems, More Solutions

By: Florentin Smarandache, Editor

Research papers presented in this collection manifest only a few of many possible applications of neutrosophic logics to theoretical physics. Most of these applications target the theory of relativity and quantum physics, but other sections of physics are also possible to be considered....

We apply the S-denying procedure to signature conditions in a four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian space — i. e. we change one (or even all) of the conditions to be partially true and partially false. We obtain five kinds of expanded space-time for General Relativity. Kind I permits the space-time to be in collapse. Kind II permits the space-time to change its own signature. Kind III has peculiarities, linked to the third signature condition. Kind IV permits regions where the metric fully degenerates: there may be non-quantum teleportation, and a home for virtual photons. Kind V is common for kinds I, II, III, and IV....

Preface, by Dmitri Rabounski ............................5 General Relativity, Gravitation, and Cosmology................6 S-Denying of the Signature Conditions Expands General Relativity’s Space, by Dmitri Rabounski, Florentin Smarandache, Larissa Borissova, Progress in Physics, 13-19, Vol. 3, 2006.......7 Positive, Neutral, and Negative Mass-Charges in General Relativity, by Larissa Borissova and Florentin Smarandache, Progress in Physics, 51-54, Vol. 3, 2006. .............14 Extension of the Big Bang Theory, by Florentin Smarandache, Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences, 139-140, Vol. 23D, No. 2, 2004. .....................18 What Gravity Is. Some Recent Considerations, by Vic Christianto and Florentin Smarandache, Progress in Physics, 63-67, Vol. 3, 2008. .......................20 A Few Remarks on the Length of Day: A Cosmological Perspective, by Vic Christianto, Matti Pitkaneny, and Florentin Smarandache, Progress in Physics, L3-L4, Vol. 1, 2009............25 Quantum Physics and Statistics .......................27 A Note on Unified Statistics Including Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein, and Tsallis Statistic...

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Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 3, No. 3, 2007

By: Shaanxi Xi'an

Scientia Magna is published annually in 200-300 pages per volume and 1,000 copies on topics such as mathematics, physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and linguistics....

An identity involving the function ep(n) Abstract The main purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between the Riemann zeta-function and an in¯nite series involving the Smarandache function ep(n) by using the elementary method, and give an interesting identity. Keywords Riemann zeta-function, in¯nite series, identity. x1. Introduction and Results Let p be any fixed prime, n be any positive integer, ep(n) denotes the largest exponent of power p in n. That is, ep(n) = m, if pm j n and pm+1 - n. In problem 68 of [1], Professor F.Smarandache asked us to study the properties of the sequence fep(n)g. About the elementary properties of this function, many scholars have studied it (see reference [2]-[7]), and got some useful results. For examples, Liu Yanni [2] studied the mean value properties of ep(bk(n)), where bk(n) denotes the k-th free part of n, and obtained an interesting mean value formula for it. That is, let p be a prime, k be any fixed positive integer, then for any real number x ¸ 1, we have the asymptotic formula....

F. Ayatollah, etc. : Some faces of Smarandache semigroups' concept in transformation semigroups' approach 1 G. Feng : On the F.Smarandache LCM function 5 N. Quang and P. Tuan : An extension of Davenport's theorem 9 M. Zhu : On the hybrid power mean of the character sums and the general Kloosterman sums 14 H. Yang and R. Fu : An equation involving the square sum of natural numbers and Smarandache primitive function 18 X. Pan and P. Zhang : An identity involving the Smarandache function ep(n) 26 A.A.K. Majumdar : A note on the Smarandache inversion sequence 30 F. Li : Some Dirichlet series involving special sequences 36 Y. Wang : An asymptotic formula of Sk(n!) 40 S. Gao and Z. Shao : A fuzzy relaxed approach for multi-objective transportation problem 44 J. Li : An infinity series involving the Smarandache-type function 52 B.E. Carvajal-Gamez, etc. : On the Lorentz matrix in terms of Infeld-van der Waerden symbols 56 X. Li : On the mean value of the Smarandache LCM function 58 K. Ran and S. Gao : Ishikawa iterative approximation of fixed points for multi-valued Ástrongly pseudo-contract mappings 63 X. Fan : On the divisi...

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Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 3, No. 1, 2007

By: Shaanxi Xi'an, Editor

This issue of the journal is devoted to the proceedings of the third International Conference on Number Theory and Smarandache Problems. The conference was a great success and will give a strong impact on the development of number theory in general and Smarandache problems in particular. In this volume we assemble not only those papers which were presented at the conference but also those papers which were submitted later and are concerned with the Smarandache type problems or other mathematical problems. Other papers are concerned with the number-theoretic Smarandache problems and will enrich the already rich stock of results on them. Readers can learn various techniques used in number theory and will get familiar with the beautiful identities and sharp asymptotic formulas obtained in the volume....

Abstract : Let k be any ¯xed positive integer, n be any positive integer, Sk(n) denotes the smallest positive integer m such that m! is divisible by kn: In this paper, we use the elementary methods to study the asymptotic properties of Sk(n), and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it. Keywords : F. Smarandache problem, primitive numbers, asymptotic formula. ...

J. Wang : Cube-free integers as sums of two squares 1 G. Liu and H. Li : Recurrences for generalized Euler numbers 9 H. Li and Q. Yang : Some properties of the LCM sequence 14 M. Liu : On the generalization of the primitive number function 18 Z. Lv : On the F. Smarandache LCM function and its mean value 22 Q. Wu : A conjecture involving the F. Smarandache LCM function 26 S. Xue : On the Smarandache dual function 29 N. Yuan : A new arithmetical function and its asymptotic formula 33 A. Muktibodh, etc. : Sequences of pyramidal numbers 39 R. Zhang and S. Ma : An e±cient hybrid genetic algorithm for continuous optimization problems 46 L. Mao : An introduction to Smarandache multi-spaces and mathematical combinatorics 54 M. Selariu : Smarandache stepped functions 81 X. Zhang and Y. Zhang : Sequences of numbers with alternate common di®erences 93 Y. Zhang : On the near pseudo Smarandache function 98 A. Muktibodh : Smarandache mukti-squares 102...

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Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 1, No. 2, 2005

By: Shaanxi Xi'an, Editor

Scientia Magna is published annually in 200-300 pages per volume and 1,000 copies on topics such as mathematics, physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and linguistics....

0. In 1999, the second author of this remarks published a book over 30 of Smarandache's problems in area of elementary number theory (see [1, 2]). After this, we worked over new 20 problems that we collected in our book [28]. These books contain Smarandache's problems, described in [10, 16]. The present paper contains some of the results from [28]. In [16] Florentin Smarandache formulated 105 unsolved problems, while in [10] C.Dumitresu and V. Seleacu formulated 140 unsolved problems of his. The second book contains almost all the problems from [16], but now each problem has unique number and by this reason in [1, 28] and here the authors use the numeration of the problems from [10]. In the text below the following notations are used....

V. Mladen and T. Krassimir : Remarks on some of the Smarandache's problem. Part 2 1 W. Kandasamy : Smarandache groupoids 27 L. Ding : On the primitive numbers of power P and its mean value properties 36 D. Torres and V. Teca : Consecutive, reversed, mirror, and symmetric Smarandache sequence of triangular numbers 39 D. Ren : On the square-free number sequence 46 T. Ramaraj and N. Kannappa : On ¯nite Smarandache near-rings 49 X. Kang : Some interesting properties of the Smarandache function 52 L. Mao : On Automorphism Groups of Maps, Surfaces and Smarandache Geometries 55 L. Ding : On the mean value of Smarandache ceil function 74 M. Le : An equation concerning the Smarandache function 78 M. Bayat, H. Teimoori and M. Hassani : An extension of ABC-theorem 81 J. Ma : An equation involving the Smarandache function 89 C. Chen : Inequalities for the polygamma functions with application 91 W. Vasantha and M. Chetry : On the number of Smarandache zero-divisors and Smarandache weak zero-divisors in loop rings 96 M. Le : The function equation S(n) = Z(n) 109 Z. Li : On the Smarandache Pseudo-number Sequences 111 D. Mehendale :...

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Multi-Valued Logic, Neutrosophy, and Schrödinger Equation

By: Florentin Smarandache; V. Christianto

This book was intended to discuss some paradoxes in Quantum Mechanics from the viewpoint of Multi-Valued-logic pioneered by Lukasiewicz, and a recent concept Neutrosophic Logic. Essentially, this new concept offers new insights on the idea of ‘identity’, which too often it has been accepted as given....

2 Lukasiewicz Multi-Valued-logic: History and Introduction to Multi- Valued Algebra 2.1 Introduction to trivalent logic and plurivalent logic We all have heard of typical binary logic, Yes or No. Or in a famous phrase by Shakespeare: “To be or not to be.” In the same way all computer hardwares from early sixties up to this year are built upon the same binary logic. It is known that the Classical Logic, also called Bivalent Logic for taking only two values {0, 1}, or Boolean Logic from British mathematician George Boole (1815-64), was named by the philosopher Quine (1981) “sweet simplicity.” [57] But this typical binary logic is not without problems. In the light of aforementioned ‘garment analogue’, we can compare this binary logic with a classic black-and-white tuxedo. It is timeless design, but of course you will not wear it for all occasions. Aristotle himself apparently knew this problem; therefore he introduced new terms ‘contingency’ and ‘possibility’ into his modal logic [5]. And then American logician Lewis first formulated these concepts of logical modality. ...

Contents Foreword 6 1 Introduction: Paradoxes, Lukasiewicz, Multi-Valued logic 7 2 Lukasiewicz Multi-Valued Logic: History and Introduction to Multi-Valued Algebra 10 2.1. Introduction to trivalent logic and plurivalent logic 10 2.2. History of Lukasiewicz and Multi-Valued Logic 12 2.3. Introduction to Multi-Valued Algebra, Chang’s Notation 15 2.4. Linkage between Multi-Valued Logic and Quantum Mechanics 15 2.5. Exercise 17 3 Neutrosophy 25 3.1. Introduction to Neutrosophy 25 3.2. Introduction to Non-Standard Analysis 26 3.3. Definition of Neutrosophic Components 27 3.4. Formalization 28 3.5. Evolution of an Idea 30 3.6. Definition of Neutrosophic Logic 31 3.7. Differences between Neutrosophic Logic and IFL 32 3.8. Operations with Sets 33 3.9. Generalizations 34 4 Schrödinger Equation 39 4.1. Introduction 39 4.2. Quantum wave dynamics and classical dynamical system 43 4.3. A new derivation of Schrödinger-type Equation 45 5 Solution to Schrödinger’s Cat Paradox 47 5.1. Standard interpretation 47 5.2. Schrödinger’s Cat Paradox 48 5.3. Hidden-variable hypothesis 50 5.4. Hydrodynamic viewpoint and diffusion i...

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Advances and Applications of DSmT for Information Fusion (Collected Works) : Volume 3

By: Florentin Smarandache; Jean Dezert

Applications demonstrate the power of the DSmT framework. In this third Volume, DSmT is applied to the entire spectrum of the Information Fusion that would interest any reader in data, sensor, information, and mathematical fusion topics. Highlighted in Figure 1 are the contemporary issues that include the links between (1) data conditioning and information management, (2) combined situation and impact assessment, and (2) knowledge representation between machine processing and user coordination. Various applications leverage DSmT “Advances” listed above along with DSmH (hybrid), DSmP (Probabilistic), and DSmT theoretical insights. The third volume attacks these application issues of coordination between the “levels” of information fusion....

Part I Advances on DSmT 1 Chapter 1 An introduction to DSmT 3 by J. Dezert and F. Smarandache 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2 Foundations of DSmT . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2.1 The power set, hyper-power set and super-power set . . 6 1.2.2 Notion of free and hybrid DSm models . . . . 18 1.2.3 Generalized belief functions . . . . . . 20 1.2.4 The classic DSm rule of combination . . . . . 21 1.2.5 The hybrid DSm rule of combination . . . . . 22 1.2.6 Examples of combination rules . . . . . . 24 1.2.7 Fusion of imprecise beliefs . . . . . . 29 1.3 Proportional Conflict Redistribution rule . . . . . 33 1.3.1 PCR formulas . . . . . . . . . 34 1.3.2 Examples . . . . . . . . . 35 1.3.3 Zadeh’s example . . . . . . . . 39 1.4 Uniform and partially uniform redistribution rules . . . 41 1.5 RSC Fusion rules . . . . . . . . . 43 1.6 The generalized pignistic transformation (GPT) . . . . 45 1.6.1 The classical pignistic transformation . . . . 45 1.6.2 Notion of DSmcardinality . . . . . . 46 1.6.3 The Generalized Pignistic Transformation . . . 47 1.7 The DSmP transformation . . . . . . . 48 1.7.1 The Probabilistic In...

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Advances and Applications of DSmT for Information Fusion (Collected Works) : Volume 2

By: Florentin Smarandache; Jean Dezert

This second book devoted on advances and applications of Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) for information fusion collects recent papers from different researchers working in engineering and mathematics. Part 1 of this book presents the current state-of-the-art on theoretical investigations while, Part 2 presents several applications of this new theory. Some ideas in this book are still under current development or improvements, but we think it is important to propose them in order to share ideas and motivate new debates with people interested in new reasoning methods and information fusion. So, we hope that this second volume on DSmT will continue to stir up some interests to researchers and engineers working in data fusion and in artificial intelligence....

Preamble iii Prefaces v Part I Advances on DSmT 1 Chapter 1 Proportional Conflict Redistribution Rules for Information Fusion 3 by Florentin Smarandache and Jean Dezert 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 The principal rules of combination . . . . . . . 6 1.2.1 Notion of total and partial conflicting masses . . . . . 6 1.2.2 The conjunctive rule . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.3 The disjunctive rule . . . . . . . . . 8 1.2.4 Dempster’s rule of combination . . . . . . . 8 1.2.5 Smets’ rule of combination . . . . . . . 9 1.2.6 Yager’s rule of combination . . . . . . . 9 1.2.7 Dubois & Prade’s rule of combination . . . . . . 9 1.2.8 The hybrid DSm rule . . . . . . . . 10 1.3 The general weighted operator (WO) . . . . . . . 11 1.4 The weighted average operator (WAO) . . . . . . . 12 1.4.1 Definition . . . . . . . . . 12 1.4.2 Example for WAO . . . . . . . . . 13 1.4.3 Limitations of WAO . . . . . . . . . 13 1.5 Daniel’s minC rule of combination . . . . . . . 14 1.5.1 Principle of the minC rule . . . . . . . 14 1.5.2 Example for minC . . . . . . . . . 15 1.6 Principle of the PCR rules . . . . . . . . . 20 1.7 The...

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Combinatorial Geometry with Applications to Field Theory : Second Edition

By: Linfan Mao

In The 2nd Conference on Combinatorics and Graph Theory of China (Aug. 16-19, 2006, Tianjing), I formally presented a combinatorial conjecture on mathematical sciences (abbreviated to CC Conjecture), i.e., a mathematical science can be reconstructed from or made by combinatorialization, implicated in the foreword of Chapter 5 of my book Automorphism groups of Maps, Surfaces and Smarandache Geometries (USA, 2005). This conjecture is essentially a philosophic notion for developing mathematical sciences of 21st century, which means that we can combine different fields into a union one and then determines its behavior quantitatively. It is this notion that urges me to research mathematics and physics by combinatorics, i.e., mathematical combinatorics beginning in 2004 when I was a post-doctor of Chinese Academy of Mathematics and System Science. It finally brought about me one self-contained book, the first edition of this book, published by InfoQuest Publisher in 2009. This edition is a revisited edition, also includes the development of a few topics discussed in the first edition....

1.5 ENUMERATION TECHNIQUES 1.5.1 Enumeration Principle. The enumeration problem on a finite set is to count and find closed formula for elements in this set. A fundamental principle for solving this problem in general is on account of the enumeration principle: For finite sets X and Y , the equality |X| = |Y | holds if and only if there is a bijection f : X → Y . Certainly, if the set Y can be easily countable, then we can find a closed formula for elements in X....

Contents Preface to the Second Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i Chapter 1. Combinatorial Principle with Graphs . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Multi-sets with operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1.1.1 Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.2 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1.3 Boolean algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1.4 Multi-Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 1.2 Multi-posets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.2.1 Partially ordered set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 1.2.2 Multi-Poset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3 Countable sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.3.1 Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.3.2 Countable set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1.4 Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.4.1 Graph. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 1.4.2 Subgraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.4.3 Labeled graph. . . . . . ...

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Unfolding the Labyrinth : Open Problems in Physics, Mathematics, Astrophysics, and Other Areas of Science

By: Florentin Smarandache

Progress and development in our knowledge of the structure, form and function of the Universe, in the true sense of the word, its beauty and power, and its timeless presence and mystery, before which even the greatest intellect is awed and humbled, can spring forth only from an unshackled mind combined with a willingness to imagine beyond the boundaries imposed by that ossified authority by which science inevitably becomes, as history teaches us, barren and decrepit. Revealing the secrets of Nature, so that we truly see ‘the sunlit plains extended, and at night the wondrous glory of the everlasting stars’*, requires far more than mere technical ability and mechanical dexterity learnt from books and consensus. The dustbin of scientific history is replete with discredited consensus and the grand reputations of erudite reactionaries. Only by boldly asking questions, fearlessly, despite opposition, and searching for answers where most have not looked for want of courage and independence of thought, can one hope to discover for one’s self. From nothing else can creativity blossom and grow, and without which the garden of science can o...

After the experiments were completed, the life span of such “atoms” was calculated theoretically in Chapiro’s works [61,62,63]. His main idea was that nuclear forces, acting between nucleon and anti-nucleon, can keep them far away from each other, hindering their annihilation. For instance, a proton and anti-proton are located at the opposite side of the same orbit and move around the orbit’s centre. If the diameter of their orbit is much larger than the diameter of the “annihilation area”, they can be kept from annihilation (see fig. 3). But because the orbit, according to Quantum Mechanics, is an actual cloud spreading far around the average radius, at any radius between the proton and the anti-proton there is a probability that they can meet one another at the annihilation distance. Therefore the nucleon---anti-nucleon system annihilates in any case, as this system is unstable by definition having a life span no more than 10-20 sec....

Contents Preface 5 Foreword 6 1 Unsolved Problems in Theoretical Physics 8 1.1. Problems related to elementary particles 8 1.2. Problems related to Unmatter 11 1.3 Some unresolved problems, questions and applications of the Brightsen nucleon cluster model 21 2 Unsolved Problems in Mathematics 24 2.1. Maximum number of circles 25 2.2. Consecutive sequence 25 2.3. Diophantine equation 25 2.4. Van Der Waerden Theorem 26 2.5. Differential equation with fractional power 26 2.6. Representation of odd number with prime 26 2.7. Magic square problem 27 2.8. Palindromic number and iteration 27 2.9. Non-Euclidean geometry by giving up its fifth postulate 28 2.10. Smarandache Geometry and Degree of Negation in Geometries 28 2.11. Non-Archimedean triangle theorem 33 2.12. The cubic Diophantine equation 33 2.13. Multispaces and applications in physics 34 3 Unsolved Problems in Astrophysics 35 3.1. Unsolved problems in Celestial Mechanics 35 3.2. Unsolved problems in Astrophysics 37 4 Unsolved Problems in Geophysics 45 4.1. Introduction 45 4.2. Some new questions 45 5 Unsolved Problems in Sorites Quantum Paradox and Sm...

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Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 2, No. 4, 2006

By: Shaanxi Xi'an, Editor

Scientia Magna is published annually in 200-300 pages per volume and 1,000 copies on topics such as mathematics, physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and linguistics....

Smarandache inversion sequence Abstract We study the Smarandache inversion sequence which is a new concept, related sequences, conjectures, properties, and problems. This study was conducted by using (Maple 8){a computer Algebra System. Keywords Smarandache inversion, Smarandache reverse sequence. Introduction In [1], C.Ashbacher, studied the Smarandache reverse sequence: 1; 21; 321; 4321; 54321; 654321; 7654321; 87654321; 987654321; 10987654321; 1110987654321; (1) and he checked the _rst 35 elements and no prime were found. I will study sequence (1), from different point of view than C. Ashbacher. The importance of this sequence is to consider the place value of digits for example the number 1110987654321, to be considered with its digits like this : 11; 10; 9; 8; 7; 6; 5; 4; 3; 2; 1, and so on. (This consideration is the soul of this study because our aim is to study all relations like this (without loss of generality). Definition. The value of the Smarandache Inversions (SI) of a positive integers, is the number of the relations i > j ( i and j are the digits of the positive integer that we concern with it), where i alw...

M. Karama : Smarandache inversion sequence 1 W. He, D. Cui, Z. Zhao and X. Yan : Global attractivity of a recursive sequence 15 J. Earls : Smarandache reversed slightly excessive numbers 22 X. Ren and H. Zhou : A new structure of super R¤-unipotent semigroups 24 J. Li : An equation involving the Smarandache-type function 31 P. Zhang : An equation involving the function ±k(n) 35 Y. B. Jun : Smarandache fantastic ideals of Smarandache BCI-algebras 40 T. Jayeo. la : On the Universality of some Smarandache loops of Bol-Moufang type 45 W. Kandasamy, M. Khoshnevisan and K. Ilanthenral : Smarandache representation and its applications 59 Y. Wang, X. Ren and S. Ma : The translational hull of superabundant semigroups with semilattice of idempotents 75 M. Bencze : Neutrosophic applications in ¯nance, economics and politics|a continuing bequest of knowledge by an exemplarily innovative mind 81 J. Fu : An equation involving the Smarandache function 83 W. Zhu : The relationship between Sp(n) and Sp(kn) 87 X. Du : On the integer part of the M-th root and the largest M-th power not exceeding N 91 J. Earls : On the ten's complement fa...

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The Incunabula Papers : Ong's Hat and other Gateways to New Dimensions

By: Joseph Matheny

The Incunabula Papers are arguably the first immersive online legend complex that introduced readers to a host of content, including what religious historian Robert Ellwood has called the “alternative reality tradition. – Legend-Tripping Online: Supernatural Folklore and the Search for Ong’s Hat...

INCUNABULA A Catalog of Rare Books, Manuscripts & Curiosa Conspiracy Theory, Frontier Science & Alternative Worlds Emory Cranston, Prop.Incunabulum: cocoon; swaddling clothes; cradle; in-cunae, in the cradle; koiman, put to sleep, winding- sheet; koimetarium (cemetery); printed books before 1501, hence by extension any rare & hermetic book… Introduction This catalog is a reproduction. This is not a commercial advertisement. ECommerce links to the available books are offered a as courtesy to researchers. Consider this first file an unusually complete bibliography to the story that unravels in the companion files. No book for sale here was actually printed before 1501, but they all answer to the description ” rare and hermetic” – even the mass market paperbacks, not to mention the xeroxes of unpublished manuscripts, which cannot be obtained from any other source! The symbol INCUNABULA was chosen for our company for it’s shape – cocoon, egg-like, gourd-like, the shape of Chaos according to Chaung Tzu. Cradle: beginnings. Sleep: dreams. Silken white sheets of birth and death; books, white pages, the cemetery of ideas. Thi...

. Incunabula A Catalogue of Rare Books, Manuscripts & Curiosa. 2. Ong's Hat: Gateway to the Dimensions! A full color brochure for the Institute of Chaos Studies and the Moorish Science Ashram in Ong's Hat, New Jersey. 4. Joseph Matheny's Journal 3. Advances in Skin Science: Quantum Tantra...

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Advances and Applications of DSmT for Information Fusion (Collected Works) : Volume 1

By: Florentin Smarandache; Jean Dezert

This book is devoted to an emerging branch of Information Fusion based on new approach for modeling the fusion problematic when the information provided by the sources is both uncertain and (highly) conflicting. This approach, known in literature as DSmT (standing for Dezert-Smarandache Theory), proposes new useful rules of combinations. We gathered in this volume a presentation of DSmT from the beginning to the latest development. Part 1 of this book presents the current state-of-the-art on theoretical investigations while Part 2 presents several applications of this new theory. We hope that this first book on DSmT will stir up some interests to researchers and engineers working in data fusion and in artificial intelligence. Many simple but didactic examples are proposed throughout the book. As a young emerging theory, DSmT is probably not exempt from improvements and its development will continue to evolve over the years. We just want through this book to propose a new look at the Information Fusion problematic and open a new track to attack the combination of information....

Preamble xi Prefaces xiii I Advances on DSmT 1 1 Presentation of DSmT 3 1.1 Introduction . . . . . 3 1.2 Short introduction to the DST . . . . 5 1.2.1 Shafer’s model and belief functions . . . 5 1.2.2 Dempster’s rule of combination . . . 5 1.2.3 Alternatives to Dempster’s rule of combination . . . 6 1.2.4 The discounting of sources of evidence . . . 10 1.3 Foundations of the DSmT . . . . 11 1.3.1 Notion of free and hybrid DSm models . . . 11 1.3.2 Notion of hyper-power set D_ . . . 13 1.3.3 Generalized belief functions . . . . 15 1.3.4 The classic DSm rule of combination . . . 16 1.3.5 The hybrid DSm rule of combination . . . 17 1.3.6 On the refinement of the frames . . . 18 1.3.7 On the combination of sources over different frames . . . 20 1.4 Comparison of different rules of combinations . . . 21 1.4.1 First example . . . . . 21 1.4.2 Second example . . . . 25 1.4.3 Third example . . . . 26 1.4.4 Fourth example . . . . 27 1.4.5 Fifth example . . . . . 27 1.5 Summary . . . . . 29 1.6 References . . . . . 31 2 The generation of hyper-power sets 37 2.1 Introduction . . . . . 37 2.2 Definition of hyper-po...

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Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 2, No. 2, 2006

By: Shaanxi Xi'an, Editor

In the volume we assemble not only those papers which were presented at the conference but also those papers which were submitted later and are concerned with the Smarandache type problems. There are a few papers which are not directly related to but should fall within the scope of Smarandache type problems. They are 1. L. Liu and W. Zhou, On conjectures about the class number of binary quadratic forms; 2. W. Liang, An identity for Stirling numbers of the second kind; 3. Y. Wang and Z. Sheng, Two formulas for x^n in terms of Chebyshev polynomials. Other papers are concerned with the number-theoretic Smarandache problems and will enrich the already rich stock of results on them. Readers can learn various techniques used in number theory and will get familiar with the beautiful identities and sharp asymptotic formulas obtained in the volume....

On Algebraic Multi-Vector Spaces Abstract A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n spaces A1;A2;An with some additional conditions hold. Combining these Smarandache multi-spaces with linear vector spaces in classical linear algebra, the conception of multi-vector spaces is introduced. Some characteristics of multi-vector spaces are obtained in this paper. Keywords Vector, multi-space, multi-vector space, dimension of a space. x1. Introduction These multi-spaces was introduced by Smarandache in under his idea of hybrid mathematics: combining different fields into a unifying field, which can be formally defined with mathematical words by the next definition. ...

L. Mao : On Algebraic Multi-Vector Spaces 1 L. Liu and W. Zhou : On conjectures concerning class number of binary quadratic forms 7 W. Zhai and H. Liu : On square-free primitive roots mod p 15 X. Pan : A new limit theorem involving the Smarandache LCM sequence 20 M. Le : The Smarandache Perfect Numbers 24 N. Yuan : On the solutions of an equation involving the Smarandache dual function 27 J. Wang : Mean value of a Smarandache-Type Function 31 H. Yang and R. Fu : On the mean value of the Near Pseudo Smarandache Function 35 W. Liang : An Identity of Stirling Numbers of the Second Kind 40 R. Ma : On the F.Smarandache LCM Ratio Sequence 44 L. Mao : On Algebraic Multi-Ring Spaces 48 Y. Han : On the Product of the Square-free Divisor of a Natural Number 55 P. Zhang : Some identities on k-power complement 60 Y. Wang and Z. Sheng : Two Formulas for xn being Represented by Chebyshev Polynomials 64 X. Chen : Two Problems About 2-Power Free Numbers 70 X. Ma : The Asymptotic Formula of P n·x log Pad(n) 72 Q. Tian : On the K-power free number sequence 77 C. Lv : On a generalized equation of Smarandache and its integer sol...

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Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 2, No. 1, 2006

By: Shaanxi Xi'an, editor

Scientia Magna is published annually in 200-300 pages per volume and 1,000 copies on topics such as mathematics, physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and linguistics....

x1. Introduction The study of Smarandache loops was initiated by W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy in 2002. In her book [19], she defined a Smarandache loop (S-loop) as a loop with at least a subloop which forms a subgroup under the binary operation of the loop. For more on loops and their properties, readers should check [16], [3], [5], [8], [9] and [19]. In her book, she introduced over 75 Smarandache concepts on loops. In her ¯rst paper [20], she introduced Smarandache : left(right) alternative loops, Bol loops, Moufang loops, and Bruck loops. But in this paper, Smarandache : inverse property loops (IPL), weak inverse property loops (WIPL), G-loops, conjugacy closed loops (CC-loop), central loops, extra loops, A-loops, K-loops, Bruck loops, Kikkawa loops, Burn loops and homogeneous loops will be introduced and studied relative to the holomorphs of loops. Interestingly, Adeniran [1] and Robinson [17], Oyebo [15], Chiboka and Solarin [6], Bruck [2], Bruck and Paige [4], Robinson [18], Huthnance [11] and Adeniran [1] have respectively studied the holomorphs of Bol loops, central loops, conjugacy closed loops, inverse property loops, A-loops,...

T. Jayeo. la : An holomorphic study of the Smarandache concept in loops 1 Z. Xu : Some arithmetical properties of primitive numbers of power p 9 A. Muktibodh : Smarandache Quasigroups 13 M. Le : Two Classes of Smarandache Determinants 20 Y. Shao, X. Zhao and X. Pan : On a Subvariety of + S` 26 T. Kim, C. Adiga and J. Han : A note on q-nanlogue of Sandor's functions 30 Q. Yang : On the mean value of the F. Smarandache simple divisor function 35 Q. Tian : A discussion on a number theoretic function 38 X. Wang : On the mean value of the Smarandache ceil function 42 Y. Wang : Some identities involving the Smarandache ceil function 45 J. Yan, X. Ren and S. Ma : The Structure of principal lters on po-semigroups 50 Y. Lu : F. Smarandache additive k-th power complements 55 M. Le : The Smarandache reverse auto correlated sequences of natural numbers 58 M. Karama : Smarandache partitions 60 L. Mao : On Algebraic Multi-Group Spaces 64 F. Russo : The Smarandache P and S persistence of a prime 71 Y. Lu : On the solutions of an equation involving the Smarandache function 76 H. Ibstedt : A Random Distribution Experiment 80 L. Mao...

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The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Atom and Chemistry

By: Ph.D. Albert Martini

The 2000 year history of the atom and chemistry, from the Classic Greek Era to the present, is described in 800 pages, depicted with some 300 pictures and illustrations. This history of the atom and chemistry discusses the lives of about 180 chemists and physicists, through the evolution of several stages of development, representing the most important scientific accomplishments. The most significant discoveries in chemistry and physics are presented chronologically to illustrate their contributions to the creation of the chemical sciences during the last 21 centuries....

INTRODUCTION It is a genuine pleasure and challenge for me to try to express the full extent of my emotions and reasons for writing this book on the STORY OF THE ATOM AND THE SCIENCES, with special reference to the CHEMICAL SCIENCES. In one sentence, I can distill the essence of the purpose for this study by simply stating that it has been a labor of love that transcended the written word because sentiments and ideas belong in the realm of the ethereal and the philosophical as well as in the domain of LITERATURE and SCIENCE. Ever since a young and impressionable student attending a country school in a community of a few hundred people, began to be introduced to the world of knowledge over 65 years ago, the sciences became to me what water is to fish, air is to birds and earth is to humanity. The introduction to the mathematical, physical, chemical and biological sciences felt like reading a beautiful poem or listening to a romantic melody. In essence, it was truly a joyful experience, full of the enigmatic, the mysterious and the fantastic, beyond my wildest imagination. The words used in the title of this book, were car...

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY 7 THE CAVE MAN 7 ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF PERSPECTIVE AND SENSE OF DUTY 8 THE MIGRATORY AND THE SEDENTARY MAN 9 ABSTRACT ON THE ATOM AND ITS ENERGY 11 THE CLASSIC GREEK AND ROMAN PHILOSOPHERS 17 EMPEDOCLES (492-432 BC) Greek Philosopher 20 Proposed the four basic elements: earth, water, air and fire. DEMOCRITUS (470-380 BC) Greek Philosopher 22 The founder of the atomic theory of antiquity. CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (100-170) Greek Astronomer 24 Proponent of the geocentric theory of our solar system with the Earth and not the Sun at its center. ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF AN ORDERLY AND SYSTEMATIC UNIVERSE 25 THE ALCHEMY OF ANTIQUITY AND THE MIDDLE AGES 32 THE METAL INDUSTRY OF ANTIQUITY 33 Mercury, Copper, Bronze, Iron and Steel. GEBER (721-815) Arabian Alchemist 38 One of the first scholars and alchemists of the Islamic world. OMAR KHAYYAM (12th Century). Persian Scientist and Astronomer 38 Brilliant astronomer and alchemist of the 12th Century. BERNARDO TREVISAN (1406 -1490) Italian Alchemist 39 One of the most famous alchemists of th...

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Paradoxist Distiches

By: Florentin Smarandache

The whole paradoxist distich should be as a geometric unitary parabola, hyperbola, ellipse at the borders between art, philosophy, rebus, and mathematics – which exist in complementariness. The School of Paradoxist Literature, which evolved around 1980s, continues through these bi-verses closed in a new lyric exact formula, but with an opening to essence. For this kind of procedural poems one can elaborate mathematical algorithms and implement them in a computer: but, it is preferable a machine with … soul!...

I M M O D E S T With the shame Shamelessness U N D E C I D E D Fighting Himself J A Z Z ( I ) Melodious Anarchy J A Z Z ( I I ) Anarchic Melody...

Fore/word and Back/word _________ 3 The making of the distich : _____ 3 Characteristics: ______________ 3 Historical considerations: _____ 5 Types of Paradoxist distiches ___ 8 1. Clichés paraphrased: ___ 8 2. Parodies: _____________ 8 3. Reversed formulae: ____ 8 4. Double negation _______ 8 5. Double affirmation, ____ 8 6. Turn around on false tracks: _________________ 8 7. Hyperboles (exaggerated): __________________ 8 8. With nuance changeable from the title: ________ 8 9. Epigrammatic: ________ 8 10. Pseudo-paradoxes: ___ 8 11. Tautologies: ________ 9 12. Redundant: _________ 9 13. Based on pleonasms: _ 9 14. or on anti-pleonasms: 9 15. Substitution of the attribute in collocations ___ 9 16. Substitution of the complement in collocations 9 17. Permutation of various parts of the whole: ___ 9 18. The negation of the clichés ______________ 10 19. Antonymization (substantively, adjectively, etc.) ________________ 10 20. Fable against the grain: _________________ 10 21. Change in grammatical category (preserving substitutions’ homonymy): ________________ 10 22. Epistolary or colloquia style: _________...

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Multispace & Multistructure Neutrosophic Transdisciplinary : 100 Collected Papers of Sciences : Volume 4

By: Florentin Smarandache

The fourth volume, in my book series of “Collected Papers”, includes 100 published and unpublished articles, notes, (preliminary) drafts containing just ideas to be further investigated, scientific souvenirs, scientific blogs, project proposals, small experiments, solved and unsolved problems and conjectures, updated or alternative versions of previous papers, short or long humanistic essays, letters to the editors...

This short technical paper advocates a bootstrapping algorithm from which we can form a statistically reliable opinion based on limited clinically observed data, regarding whether an osteo-hyperplasia could actually be a case of Ewing’s osteosarcoma. The basic premise underlying our methodology is that a primary bone tumour, if it is indeed Ewing’s osteosarcoma, cannot increase in volume beyond some critical limit without showing metastasis. We propose a statistical method to extrapolate such critical limit to primary tumour volume. Our model does not involve any physiological variables but rather is entirely based on time series observations of increase in primary tumour volume from the point of initial detection to the actual detection of metastases....

Collected Eclectic Ideas - preface by the author.............................3 Contents....................................................6 ASTRONOMY..................................14 1. First Lunar Space Base, project proposal, by V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache..15 2. On Recent Discovery of New Planetoids in the Solar System and Quantization of Celestial System, by V. Christianto, F. Smarandache..................28 3. Open and Solved Elementary Questions in Astronomy, by Florentin Smarandache.. 36 BIOLOGY......................................40 4. Statistical Modeling of Primary Ewing Tumors of the Bone, by Sreepurna Malakar, Florentin Smarandache, Sukanto Bhattacharya, in in , Vol. 3, No. JJ05, 81-88, 2005................41 CALCULUS....................................53 5. A Triple Inequality with Series and Improper Integrals, by Florentin Smarandache, in Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences, Vol. 25E, No. 1, 215-217, 2006.........54 6. Immediate Calculation of Some Poisson Type Integrals Using SuperMathematics Circular Ex-Centric Functions, by Florentin Smarandache & Mircea Eugen................................

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Multispace & Multistructure Neutrosophic Transdisciplinary : 100 Collected Papers of Sciences : Volume 4

By: Florentin Smarandache

The fourth volume, in my book series of “Collected Papers”, includes 100 published and unpublished articles, notes, (preliminary) drafts containing just ideas to be further investigated, scientific souvenirs, scientific blogs, project proposals, small experiments, solved and unsolved problems and conjectures, updated or alternative versions of previous papers, short or long humanistic essays, letters to the editors...

This short technical paper advocates a bootstrapping algorithm from which we can form a statistically reliable opinion based on limited clinically observed data, regarding whether an osteo-hyperplasia could actually be a case of Ewing’s osteosarcoma. The basic premise underlying our methodology is that a primary bone tumour, if it is indeed Ewing’s osteosarcoma, cannot increase in volume beyond some critical limit without showing metastasis. We propose a statistical method to extrapolate such critical limit to primary tumour volume. Our model does not involve any physiological variables but rather is entirely based on time series observations of increase in primary tumour volume from the point of initial detection to the actual detection of metastases....

Collected Eclectic Ideas - preface by the author.............................3 Contents....................................................6 ASTRONOMY..................................14 1. First Lunar Space Base, project proposal, by V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache..15 2. On Recent Discovery of New Planetoids in the Solar System and Quantization of Celestial System, by V. Christianto, F. Smarandache..................28 3. Open and Solved Elementary Questions in Astronomy, by Florentin Smarandache.. 36 BIOLOGY......................................40 4. Statistical Modeling of Primary Ewing Tumors of the Bone, by Sreepurna Malakar, Florentin Smarandache, Sukanto Bhattacharya, in in , Vol. 3, No. JJ05, 81-88, 2005................41 CALCULUS....................................53 5. A Triple Inequality with Series and Improper Integrals, by Florentin Smarandache, in Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences, Vol. 25E, No. 1, 215-217, 2006.........54 6. Immediate Calculation of Some Poisson Type Integrals Using SuperMathematics Circular Ex-Centric Functions, by Florentin Smarandache & Mircea Eugen................................

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