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16th Century

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16th Century

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades: 1500s 1510s 1520s 1530s 1540s
1550s 1560s 1570s 1580s 1590s
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments
This world map by Gerardus Mercator (1587) besides the classical continents Europe, Africa and Asia shows the Americas as America sive India Nova, New Guinea and other islands of Southeast Asia as well as an Antarctic continent and a yet undetermined Terra Australis.
Sculpture of a male nude
The Statue of David, completed by Michelangelo in 1504, is one of the most renowned works of the Renaissance
Portrait of a young woman, with a subtle smile, well-groomed and calm.
Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1503–1506, one of the world's most well-known paintings.
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades: 1500s 1510s 1520s 1530s 1540s
1550s 1560s 1570s 1580s 1590s
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600 (depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calendar introduced a lapse of 10 days in October 1582).[1]

It is regarded by historians as the century in which the rise of the West occurred. During the 16th century, Spain and Portugal explored the world's seas and opened world-wide oceanic trade routes. Large parts of the New World became Spanish and Portuguese colonies, and while the Portuguese became the masters of Asia's and Africa's Indian Ocean trade, the Spanish opened trade across the Pacific Ocean, linking the Americas with Asia.

In Europe, the Protestant Reformation gave a major blow to the authority of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church. European politics became dominated by religious conflicts, with the groundwork for the epochal Thirty Years' War being laid towards the end of the century.

In the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire continued to expand, with the Sultan taking the title of Caliph, while dealing with a resurgent Persia. Iran and Iraq were caught by major popularity of the once-obscure Shiite sect of Islam under the rule of the Safavid dynasty of warrior-mystics, providing grounds for a Persia independent of the majority-Sunni Muslim world.

China evacuated the coastal areas, because of Japanese piracy. Japan was suffering under a severe civil war at the time.

Mughal Emperor Akbar extended the power of the Mughal Empire to cover most of the Indian sub continent. His rule significantly influenced arts, and culture in the region.

Copernicus proposed the heliocentric universe, which was met with strong resistance, and Tycho Brahe refuted the theory of celestial spheres through observational measurement of the 1572 appearance of a Milky Way supernova. These events directly challenged the long-held notion of an immutable universe supported by Ptolemy and Aristotle, and led to major revolutions in astronomy and science.

Events

Undated

1500s

Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries and defending Knights of Saint John at the Siege of Rhodes in 1522, from an Ottoman manuscript.
Spanish conquistadors with their Tlaxcallan allies fighting against the Otomies of Metztitlan in present day Mexico, a 16th-century codex

1510s

Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition that circumnavigated the globe in 1519–1522.

1520s

Sack of Rome by Charles V forces.

1530s

Portrait of Ivan the Terrible

1540s

1550s

Hans Eworth, Queen Mary, c. 1555-1558

1560s

School of François Clouet, c. 1560–1561, Mary, Queen of Scots.
Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, the Iron Duke of Alba. Governor of the Netherlands from 1567 to 1573

1570s

1580s

The fall of Spanish Armada
George Gower, c. 1588, Queen Elizabeth I of England

1590s

Significant people

Exploration

Visual artists

Musicians and Composers

Literature

Science and Philosophy

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Related article: List of 16th century inventions.

See also

References

  1. ^ Modern reference works on the period tend to follow the introduction of the Gregorian calendar for the sake of clarity; thus NASA's lunar eclipse catalogue states "The Gregorian calendar is used for all dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used." For dates after 15 October 1582, care must be taken to avoid confusion of the two styles.
  2. ^ Polybius: "The Rise Of The Roman Empire", Page 36, Penguin, 1979.
  3. ^ "16th Century Timeline (1501 to 1600)". fsmitha.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009. 
  4. ^ "History of Smallpox – Smallpox Through the Ages". Texas Department of State Health Services.
  5. ^ Ricklefs (1991), p.23
  6. ^ "A LIST OF NATIONAL EPIDEMICS OF PLAGUE IN ENGLAND 1348-1665". Archived from the original on 2009-05-03. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  7. ^ a b Ricklefs (1991), page 24
  8. ^ The Sweating Sickness. Story of London.. Accessed 2009-04-25. Archived 2009-05-03.
  9. ^ Sandra Arlinghaus. "Life Span of Suleiman the Magnificent 1494-1566". Personal.umich.edu. Retrieved 2013-05-05. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Ricklefs (1991), page 25
  11. ^ "La Terra De Hochelaga - Jaques Cartier a Hochelaga". jacquescarter.org. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. 
  12. ^ "The Lusiads".  
  13. ^ Miller, George (ed.) (1996). To The Spice Islands and Beyond: Travels in Eastern Indonesia. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. page xv.  
  14. ^ Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). "Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective". PUQ. p.308. ISBN 2-7605-1588-5
  15. ^ a b c d e f Ricklefs (1991), page 27
  16. ^ a b Ricklefs (1991), page 28
  17. ^ Stoica, Vasile (1919). The Roumanian Question: The Roumanians and their Lands. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh Printing Company. p. 18. 
  18. ^ Drake (1978, p.1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout the whole of Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar.

External links

  • Timelines of 16th century events, science, culture and persons


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