World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Absolute Radio


Absolute Radio is one of the UK's three Independent National Radio stations. The station rebranded to its current name at 7:45 am on 29 September 2008.[1][2]

The station is based in London and plays popular rock music. It currently broadcasts on medium wave and DAB across the UK, on 105.8 FM in London and 105.2 FM in the West Midlands, Sky (channel 0107), Virgin Media (channel 915), Freeview (channel 727) and Freesat (channel 724). It is also available in other parts of the world via satellite, cable, and on the Internet. As of 31 December 2013, international streaming via the internet has been discontinued.[3] Absolute Radio is a patron of The Radio Academy.[4]

Absolute Radio is owned and operated by Bauer Radio of Hamburg based Bauer Media Group, it forms part of Bauer's National portfolio of radio brands.

Contents

  • History 1
    • 1993–1997: Virgin Radio launch and early years 1.1
    • 1998–2000: The Ginger Media Group 1.2
    • 2000–2008: SMG ownership 1.3
    • 2008–2013: Acquisition by Times of India and rebranding as Absolute Radio 1.4
    • 2013–present: Acquisition by Bauer Media 1.5
  • Programming 2
    • Audience and playlist 2.1
    • DJs 2.2
      • Weekdays 2.2.1
      • Weekends 2.2.2
    • News staff 2.3
    • Former presenters 2.4
    • Football commentary 2.5
  • Broadcast 3
    • Studios 3.1
    • AM transmission 3.2
    • FM transmission 3.3
    • Satellite distribution 3.4
  • Website and internet broadcasting 4
  • Sister stations 5
    • Absolute Classic Rock 5.1
    • Absolute Radio 60s 5.2
    • Absolute Radio 70s 5.3
    • Absolute Radio 80s 5.4
    • Absolute Radio 90s 5.5
    • Absolute Radio 00s 5.6
    • Former spin-off stations 5.7
      • dabbl 5.7.1
      • Virgin Radio Groove 5.7.2
      • Liquid 5.7.3
      • Virgin Radio Party Classics 5.7.4
      • Absolute Xtreme 5.7.5
      • Virgin Radio Viva (cancelled) 5.7.6
  • References 6
  • Bibliography 7
  • External links 8

History

1993–1997: Virgin Radio launch and early years

No 1 Golden Square with "Virgin Radio" branding, 1993 – 2008.

The 1990 Broadcasting Act allowed for the launch of independent national radio (INR) stations in the United Kingdom.[5] The Radio Authority was mandated to award three INR licences, one of which (INR1) had to be for a 'non-pop' station (which was awarded to Classic FM), and one of which had to be for a predominantly speech-based service (this would be advertised later as INR3 and would be awarded to Talk Radio). The remaining licence was to be open to 'all-comers'. The licences were to be awarded to the highest cash bidder, providing that the applicant met criteria set down in the Broadcasting Act.[6]

The second national licence, INR2, would take over the 1197 kHz and 1215 kHz frequencies, which were to be relinquished by Sir David Frost.[12][13]

The station launched as Virgin 1215 at 12.15 pm on 30 April 1993. The original line-up of DJs included Richard Skinner, Russ Williams, Jono Coleman, Mitch Johnson, Graham Dene, Nick Abbot, Wendy Lloyd, Tommy Rivers, Emperor Rosko and Dave Fanning. Chris Evans was also hired to present a Saturday morning show, following his success at BBC GLR in the weekend mid-morning slot. The Show, The Big Red Mug Show was sponsored by Nescafe. The first song was a cover version of the Steppenwolf song "Born to be Wild", recorded by Australian group INXS. Richard Branson was the first voice to be heard, live from the Virgin Megastore in Manchester, with Richard Skinner the first voice back in the London studios.[14] Skinner was also Programme Director, a role he shared with John Revell.[15] John Pearson, formerly Sales Director of LBC was launch Sales Director. Andy Mollett was launch Finance Director. David Campbell, previously managing director of one of Virgin's post-production television companies,[16] was the chief executive at launch.[11]

From before its launch on AM, Virgin Radio was campaigning for a national FM network. Initially, it lobbied for Radio 4's FM network to be made available[17] and then, when the Radio Authority launched a consultation on the use of the 105–108 MHz band,[18] it lobbied for it to be set aside as a national network.[19] The Radio Authority decided, however, that 105–108 MHz would be licensed to new local and regional stations[20] and Virgin Radio applied for[21] and won one of the new FM licences advertised in London as a result.[22]

Virgin Radio launched on 105.8 MHz FM in London on 10 April 1995[23] beginning with a message from David Frost at 6 am followed by the Russ 'n’ Jono breakfast show. Part of the licence requirements for the London service meant that a daily London opt-out was broadcast on FM, presented initially by Rowland Rivron.[24]

Within a year, Virgin Group was considering the next steps for the radio station, including the option of a flotation[25] or buying back the shares of JP Morgan, Apax and Sir David Frost.[13] In May 1997, it was announced that Capital Radio had agreed to acquire Virgin Radio in an £87 million deal.[26] Capital's plans included moving Virgin Radio from 1 Golden Square to Capital's Leicester Square building and splitting programming between the AM and FM services.[27] The Radio Authority approved the acquisition,[28] but Nigel Griffiths, the Consumer Affairs Minister, referred the takeover to the Monopolies and Mergers Commission (MMC).[29] The MMC report into the takeover would not be issued until January 1998, and would recommend that the deal could only go ahead if Capital Gold was sold or Virgin's London FM licence was left out of the deal.[30] However, the delay in approval of the Capital acquisition would ultimately lead to the deal not going through.

In January 1997, Chris Evans had left his role as presenter of the Radio 1 breakfast show as a result of a disagreement between him and the programme controller Matthew Bannister (Chris had asked for Fridays off to allow more time for him to work on his Channel 4 television show, TFI Friday).[31][32] Evans was keen to return to radio.[33] Indeed, it was reported that his agent, Michael Foster, had approached Matthew Bannister to ask if Chris would be allowed to be return to Radio 1,[34] and he had gone as far as commencing negotiations to buy Talk Radio.[35]

Richard Branson wanted Evans to work for Virgin Radio, so much so that he joined him on a Concorde flight to New York to try to persuade him to join as the drive time presenter.[36][37] In the end, Virgin Radio hired Evans to present the breakfast show, replacing the incumbent Russ 'n' Jono show (presented by Russ Williams and Jonathan Coleman). His show started on 13 October 1997, the same day that Zoë Ball started as Evans' replacement on Radio 1.[38] The initial contract would only be for ten weeks, until the MMC announced its decision on the Capital Radio takeover.[37] Evans approached David Campbell to discuss buying the radio station and, with Michael Foster's help, they put together a deal to buy the radio station with venture capital supplied by Apax Partners and Paribas, with Virgin Group retaining a 20% stake in the business.[39] The deal was announced on 8 December 1997, and would see the formation of the Ginger Media Group, an umbrella company overseeing Virgin Radio and producing programmes such as TFI Friday.[40][41]

1998–2000: The Ginger Media Group

Evans' ownership of Virgin Radio started well, with a breakfast show audience increase of 660,000 to 2.2m in his first three months.[42] In August 1998, Chris Evans took a spur of the moment decision one weekend to launch a Saturday afternoon show called Rock 'n' Roll Football, a show that is still broadcast on Absolute Radio.[43] From 5 October 1998, Virgin Radio started simulcasts of the breakfast show on Sky One each morning for an hour between 7.30 and 8.30 am. When a track was played on the radio, viewers would see a video at the same time.[24][44]

The start of the new football season in August 1999 saw Terry Venables join Russ Williams in a show that would precede Rock 'n' Roll Football.[24] At the end of 1999, in response to the TV programme Who Wants To Be A Millionaire not having given away its top prize, Virgin Radio set a broadcasting first when Clare Barwick won £1 million at the culmination of "Someone's Going To Be A Millionaire".[24][45]

The management team at the Ginger Media Group were considering expansion opportunities, including a plan to acquire the [43]

2000–2008: SMG ownership

The management team therefore set themselves on a strategy to sell the business three years ahead of schedule.[43] They hired Goldman Sachs to run the sale process, and considered a public flotation,[46] before selling to the Scottish Media Group (now STV Group plc) for £225 million in March 2000. The Scottish Media Group, which owned Scottish Television and the Herald newspaper, fought off other bidders including Clear Channel, NRJ and Guardian Media. Evans personally made £75 million out of the sale.[47]

Evans was subsequently fired by his new employer in 2001 for failing to report into work for five consecutive days while reportedly partying with his then wife Billie Piper.[48]

Chief Executive, John Pearson, who had been with the station since before launch, resigned in April 2005,[49] and was replaced by Fru Hazlitt, who had previously been managing director of Yahoo! UK and Ireland.[50]

On 13 June 2006, SMG plc signed a deal with YooMedia to make Virgin Radio available on Freeview. It has always placed a great emphasis on other methods of transmission than medium wave, as the 1215 kHz frequency suffers from considerable interference, particularly after dark – BBC Radio 1, which used 1215 kHz for its first eleven years on air, moved to higher-quality medium wave frequencies (now used by talkSport) in 1978 mainly for this reason.

2008–2013: Acquisition by Times of India and rebranding as Absolute Radio

No 1 Golden Square with Absolute Radio branding

On 12 April 2007, it was announced that SMG plc were to sell Virgin Radio, to enable the company to focus on its television station, STV.[51] On 30 May 2008 SMG sold Virgin Radio to TIML Golden Square Limited, a subsidiary of The Times Group for £53.2 million with £15 million set aside for rebranding. TIML were given 90 days grace in which to rebrand the station. As part of the deal, Absolute Radio International, which operates two FM licences in Oxford, would manage the station.[52][53]

On 1 September 2008 it was announced that Virgin Radio would be rebranded as Absolute Radio at the end of the month (28 September).[2] At the same time some changes to the line-up were made known with JK and Joel, Robin Burke, Tony Hadley and John Osborne leaving the station and Allan Lake, Joanna Russell (of Trent FM's Jo & Twiggy) and Tim Shaw joining,[54] though Osborne would return shortly after. However, listening figures revealed for the final quarter of 2008 have revealed that almost one fifth of former Virgin Radio listeners have been lost since the rebranding to Absolute Radio.[55]

2013–present: Acquisition by Bauer Media

On 29 July 2013, Bauer Media Group announced it intended to purchase Absolute from current owner, The Times Group for an amount believed to be between £20m-£25m, pending regulatory approval of the sale.[56] The deal was cleared by the Office of Fair Trading on 23 December.[57]

Subsequently, by September 2014, all other London-based Bauer stations permanently moved from Mappin House to a refurbished One Golden Square, creating a new national radio hub.

Owners Bauer Radio announced in July 2015 that Absolute Radio would be taking up the 105.2 FM frequency in the West Midlands, previously held by Planet Rock. Absolute launched on 105.2 FM on 7 September 2015.[58]

Programming

Audience and playlist

Original Virgin Radio logo, used prior to October 2008

Virgin Radio launched aiming at a target group of 24 to 44-year-olds[59] and with a focus on album music, arguing that "singles chart shows on Radio 1 and local commercial radio were outdated because albums outsold singles by three to one."[60] It would provide a blend of recent album tracks and chart music from the past 25 years and aim to fill the "hole in the middle" between BBC Radio 1 and local commercial radio, which was specifically aimed at young audiences and "gold" stations offering classic hits.[61]

A year after launch, David Campbell was quoted as saying that "the music policy was wrong, even though Virgin had lots of research to suggest it was doing what listeners said they wanted. We did something we should never do: pursue critical acclaim, playing obscure tracks, gaining the praise of the music press." The station's approach had been to mix in more familiar music.[62]

Fru Hazlitt, when interviewed for The Guardian in September 2006, described the type of music the station championed: "It's pretty much mainstream rock festival type music. Razorlight, Keane. These bands are becoming some of the biggest in the world."[63]

When announcing the rebrand as Absolute Radio on the One Golden Square blog, Clive Dickens, chief operating officer, noted that the station would be "sticking with real music – not manufactured rubbish – and we're building on the amount of live music we do – we're just going to discover more of all of it."[64]

The music policy continues to focus on guitar-based rock, mostly British. In a blog post in February 2009, Head of Music James Curran noted that the thirty-most played artists in the first four months of Absolute Radio had been: Manic Street Preachers, Coldplay, Arctic Monkeys, Snow Patrol, Kings of Leon, The Killers, Oasis, Travis, U2, Placebo, Suede, Kaiser Chiefs, Kasabian, Queen, Keane, Stereophonics, Caesars, Elbow, Bruce Springsteen, R.E.M., Nickelback, The Offspring, Aerosmith, The Rolling Stones, Biffy Clyro, The Beatles, David Bowie, Nirvana, The Police and Blur.[65]

DJs

Weekdays

Weekends

News staff

Editor
Matt Dyson

Broadcast Journalists
Sandy Warr

Former presenters

Virgin Radio's original line-up included Russ Williams, Richard Skinner, Mitch Johnson, Tommy Vance, Jonathan Coleman, Nick Abbot and Wendy Lloyd.

Other past presenters on the network include Danny Baker, Simon James and Hill, Robin Banks, Kelly-Anne Smith, Vicki Butler-Henderson, Greg Burns, Robin Burke, Martin Collins, Gary Davies, Daryl Denham, Chris Evans (who also owned the station), Mark Fox, Neil Francis, Alan Freeman, Tony Hadley, Nicky Horne, Janey Lee Grace, Kevin Greening, Gary King, Phil Kennedy, JK and Joel, Jezza (aka Jeremy Kyle), Allan Lake, Iain Lee, Tim Lichfield, Tim Lovejoy, Pete Mitchell, Al Murray, James Merritt, John Osborne, Lynn Parsons, Steve Penk, Vic Reeves, Jo Russell, Holly Samos, Harriet Scott, Tim Shaw, Richard Skinner, Graeme Smith, Suggs, David Tennant, Clive Warren, Sandy Beech, Ray Cokes (MTV), Dave Gorman, Andrew Bailey, Adrian Hieatt and many others.

Football commentary

From the 2010–11 season, Absolute Radio began broadcasting live commentary of 32 Premier League games on Saturday afternoons.[66] The matches are broadcast on AM only; the London FM service airs "Rock 'n Roll Football" in place of match output. On DAB, Absolute Radio Extra was established as a part-time opt-out service to carry match commentaries.

Ian Wright joined the station to host a post-match phone-in programme, as well as a regular music show on Absolute Radio 90s and a football podcast.

Since 2013, Absolute Radio has also held UK radio rights to American football's National Football League and broadcasts those games on both the main channel and Absolute Radio 90s.

Broadcast

Studios

Virgin Radio and Absolute Radio have broadcast from studios at 1 Golden Square since Virgin Radio's launch in 1993.[24]

AM transmission

The 1215 kHz frequency (247 metres) was used, in selected areas only, by the BBC Light Programme until 1967. It was then used nationally as the original home of BBC Radio 1[67] until 22 November 1978 and from 23 November 1978 until 28 February 1992 by BBC Radio 3.[68]

In a number of areas, particularly in areas where the signal from the main 1215 transmitters overlap with each other, Absolute Radio operates a number of filler transmitters on different frequencies. Here is a list of the current AM transmitters in use by Absolute Radio:[69][70]

Transmitter Name Coverage Frequency (kHz) EMRP (kW) Grid Reference Air date
Boston[71] Lincolnshire 1242 2 2 September 1994
Brighton (Southwick)[72] Sussex 1197 1.1 9 November 1993
Brookmans Park[73] London, Hertfordshire, Essex, South Bedfordshire 1215 125 3 August 1993
Chesterton Fen[74] South and Central Cambridgeshire 1197 0.2 2 September 1994
Dartford Tunnel Dartford Tunnel 1215 0,004 8 March 1993
Droitwich[75] West Midlands 1215 105 8 March 1993
Fareham[76] South Hampshire and Isle of Wight 1215 1 9 March 1993
Fern Barrow[77] Dorset 1197 0.25 11 March 1993
Gloucester[78] Gloucestershire 1197 0.3 14 March 1993
Greenside Scalp[79] East Tayside 1242 0.5 9 March 1993
Guildford (Pirbright)[80] West Surrey and North East Hampshire 1260 0.5 24 December 1993
Hoo[81] North and West Kent, South and Central Essex 1197 2 15 March 1993
Hull[82] Humberside 1215 0.32 15 March 1993
Kings Heath[83] Northamptonshire 1233 0.5 7 November 1993
Lisnagarvey[84] Northern Ireland 1215 16 8 March 1993
Lydd[85] South East Kent and South East Sussex 1260 2 2 April 1995
Manningtree[86] South East Suffolk and North East Essex 1233 0.5 6 November 1993
Moorside Edge[87] North West and Yorkshire 1215 200 8 March 1993
Oxford[88] Oxfordshire 1197 0.25 12 March 1993
Plymouth[89] Devon 1215 1.1 15 March 1993
Postwick[90] East Norfolk and North East Suffolk 1215 1.2 16 March 1993
Redmoss[91] Aberdeen and East Grampian 1215 2.3 25 March 1993
Redruth[92] Cornwall 1215 2 28 July 1997
Sheffield[93] South Yorkshire 1233 0.3 6 November 1993
Sideway[94] Staffordshire 1242 0.5 9 July 1993
Stockton[95] Cleveland 1242 1 15 March 1993
Swindon[96] Wiltshire 1233 0.1 11 November 1993
Torbay[97] Devon 1197 1 19 March 1993
Trowell[98] Nottinghamshire 1197 0.5 27 March 1993
Wallasey[99] Merseyside 1197 0.4 27 March 1993
Washford[100] South Wales, Avon, Somerset 1215 100 11 March 1993
Westerglen[101] Central Scotland 1215 100 10 March 1993
Wrekenton[102] Tyne and Wear 1215 2.2 18 March 1993

FM transmission

The station is available on 105.8 FM from the Crystal Palace transmitting station in London and on 105.2 FM in the West Midlands from the Sutton Coldfield transmitting station.

The signal from the Sutton Coldfield transmitter is audible throughout a large part of the Midlands, including the counties of Staffordshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire and Worcestershire. It can be heard with fairly decent quality down to Gloucester on the M5 motorway.

Satellite distribution

In the summer of 1993, Virgin Radio began broadcasting in stereo on the Astra 1A satellite on an audio sub-carrier of the Sky News channel.[103][104] This service ceased on 1 July 2001 in anticipation of Sky's cessation of its analogue satellite service.[105] Virgin Radio was one of the first twenty radio stations which joined the Sky Digital service on 20 November 1999.[106] Carried on Astra 2A, it launched on the channel 917 of the Sky EPG,[107][108] and can today be found as Absolute Radio on channel 0107.

Website and internet broadcasting

Virgin Radio launched its first website on 7 March 1996.[109][110] Designed by AKQA,[111] it hosted a live RealAudio stream, making it the first European radio station to stream 24-hours a day on the internet.[109] The station went onto redesign the website a further six times as Virgin Radio.[109] Streaming audio formats and presentation developed over time: QuickTime streaming was added in July 1999, an interactive media player launched in October 1999, an Ogg-Vorbis stream was launched in June 2003,[109] and HE-AAC and Ogg-FLAC streams were launched in December 2009.[112] In Autumn 2012 they launched the "Opus Streaming Trial"[113] as part of the "Listen Labs", including streams for all seven stations in 24, 64 and 96 kbit/s. This trial was cancelled without further notice in autumn 2014, along with the live webcams and the public playlist API.[114]

In 2001, Virgin Radio joined the Measurecast[115] and Arbitron[116] internet broadcasting measurement services. Both measurement services have since closed. In 2009, Absolute Radio started publishing its internet listening and download statistics.[117]

Virgin Radio was also among the first to explore the opportunities for delivering its services to mobile phones. It took part in a joint venture with Ericsson in 1999 to investigate the use of third-generation mobile phone technologies for radio,[118] launched a WAP site in 2000[119] and took part in a trial in 2001 with Crown Castle and Manx Telecom to explore the use of 3G phones to add interactivity to digital radio broadcasts.[120] In 2009, Absolute Radio launched an application for the Apple iPhone[121] and tagging for the Apple iPod Nano.[122] In 2010 applications were released for the Amazon Kindle,[123] the Nokia Ovi Store, the BlackBerry[124] and Windows Phone 7[125] and Absolute Radio was selected as a launch partner for the Apple iAd mobile advertising network.[126]

In January 2014, Absolute Radio Network has restricted the access to the internet radio on their own website to UK listeners only, and removed their apps for iPhone and Android in non-UK app stores.[127] But it is still possible to access the internet radio outside the UK via the direct link or www.radioplayer.co.uk (which links to the official stream).

Sister stations

A number of subsidiary stations to Virgin Radio and Absolute Radio have been launched as online and digital radio services over recent years, many being established during the period when SMG plc was in charge of the station. The stations were collectively known as the Virgin Radio Network (now the Absolute Radio Network). All 'Absolute' branded channels broadcast on DAB, the Internet, and digital television platforms; they are also now available as smartphone apps. The line-up of stations within the network has changed over time, and those currently on air are:

Absolute Classic Rock

A radio station on DAB, Virgin Media, Sky and the Internet playing classic rock from the sixties to the nineties. Launched as Virgin Radio Classic Rock in 2000 as part of SMG Radio strategy to trade total network listening hours at a time when analogue listening hours had been falling. The service was rebranded as Absolute Classic Rock in 2008.

Absolute Radio 60s

Launched on 22 November 2011, Absolute 60s is the sixth radio station launched under the Absolute branding. The station is broadcast on DAB, some digital television networks, and online. The station has defined itself as "the home of the Beatles, Stones and Mo-Town". With The Beatles and The Rolling Stones as highlights of the station's broadcasts, this will focus on music originating from the 1960s. Pete Mitchell is the main daytime presenter, returning to Golden Square: he was last on Virgin Radio in 2005 hosting the Breakfast show with Geoff Lloyd.

Absolute Radio 70s

Launched on 29 November 2011, Absolute 70s is the seventh radio station launched under the Absolute branding. The station is broadcast on DAB and online. With Rod Stewart, David Bowie and Prince as highlights of the station's broadcast, this will focus on music originating from the 1970s. Richard Skinner, another previous DJ from the Virgin Radio days, will also return to Golden Square to feature on this station.

Absolute Radio 80s

A radio station on DAB, Freesat, Sky, Virgin Media and the Internet which plays classic hits, and is aimed at "reluctant adults" who want to reconnect with the tunes of their youth. Absolute Radio 80s was launched on 4 December 2009.

Absolute Radio 90s

Absolute Radio 90s launched on 21 June 2010 on DAB to a 13m population in London, Esssex, Wiltshire, Bristol, Berkshire and Bath. The station is also available on Sky 0203 and online via website and mobile smartphones.

Absolute Radio 00s

Absolute Radio 00s launched on 10 December 2010[128] at 10 am online and on DAB Digital Radio in London.[129] After an internet poll, the first song played was Mr. Brightside by The Killers.

Former spin-off stations

dabbl

dabbl was a user-controlled music radio station broadcast on the Internet and selected local DAB multiplexes 24 hours a day, and on DAB in London from 7 pm to 6 am daily. Its content was chosen by members of Absolute's VIP Service, who select songs which are then voted for. Songs with the most votes are then broadcast. dabbl has now ceased, its DAB slots outside London taken by Absolute Radio 90s.

Virgin Radio Groove

A radio station on DAB, Virgin Media, Sky and the Internet which played motown, soul and disco music. Originally named The Groove, it was rebranded as a Virgin Radio station in 2004 and closed at the end of 2007.[130]

Liquid

Liquid was a station playing indie, alternative and Britpop. It ran on DAB in London between 2000 and 2004, with its slot taken by Virgin Radio Classic Rock (now Absolute Classic Rock).

Virgin Radio Party Classics

Launched on 15 June 2006, Virgin Radio Party Classics played party pop music. The radio station was based on Suggs' Virgin Party Classics show broadcast on Virgin Radio. The station, which broadcast on Sky Digital and online, closed down on Friday 13 October 2006.

Absolute Xtreme

A radio station on DAB, Virgin Media, Sky and the Internet, playing new music. Absolute Xtreme was launched (as Virgin Radio Xtreme) on 5 September 2005, by Lali Parikh (Station Manager) with Steve Harris being the main on air talent. On 4 December 2009, Absolute Xtreme was replaced on DAB and digital TV by Absolute Radio 80s.

Virgin Radio Viva (cancelled)

Virgin Radio Viva, which was due to launch on the new 4 Digital Group platform (which ultimately never launched), was due to be a popular music station aimed at 15- to 29-year-old women. It will now not go ahead.[130]

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^
  4. ^ "Patrons" The Radio Academy
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^ a b
  12. ^
  13. ^ a b
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ a b c d e
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^ Evans 2009, p. 254-258.
  32. ^
  33. ^ Evans 2009, p. 278-284.
  34. ^
  35. ^ Evans 2009, p. 283-284.
  36. ^ Evans 2009, p. 265-275.
  37. ^ a b
  38. ^ Evans 2009, p. 287-289.
  39. ^ Evans 2009, p. 290-317.
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^ a b c Evans 2010.
  44. ^
  45. ^
  46. ^
  47. ^
  48. ^
  49. ^
  50. ^
  51. ^
  52. ^
  53. ^
  54. ^
  55. ^ Commercial radio's share dips in Q4 2008 Brand Republic, 29 January 2009
  56. ^
  57. ^
  58. ^ Absolute Radio to replace Planet Rock on FM in the West Midlands
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^
  62. ^
  63. ^
  64. ^
  65. ^
  66. ^
  67. ^
  68. ^
  69. ^
  70. ^
  71. ^
  72. ^
  73. ^
  74. ^
  75. ^
  76. ^
  77. ^
  78. ^
  79. ^
  80. ^
  81. ^
  82. ^
  83. ^
  84. ^
  85. ^
  86. ^
  87. ^
  88. ^
  89. ^
  90. ^
  91. ^
  92. ^
  93. ^
  94. ^
  95. ^
  96. ^
  97. ^
  98. ^
  99. ^
  100. ^
  101. ^
  102. ^
  103. ^
  104. ^
  105. ^
  106. ^
  107. ^
  108. ^
  109. ^ a b c d
  110. ^
  111. ^
  112. ^
  113. ^
  114. ^
  115. ^
  116. ^
  117. ^
  118. ^
  119. ^
  120. ^
  121. ^
  122. ^
  123. ^
  124. ^
  125. ^
  126. ^
  127. ^
  128. ^
  129. ^
  130. ^ a b

Bibliography

External links

  • AbsoluteRadio.co.uk
  • Absolute Radio YouTube channel
  • Absolute Radio Last.fm page, showing a complete listing of most tracks played
  • Absolute Radio Player Direct link, also accessible outside the UK
  • The Launch of Absolute Radio Absolute Radio, 29 September 2008
  • Virgin Radio International
  • The launch of Virgin 1215 (audio file) Interval Signals Online
  • The Radio Academy


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.