World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Alkalosis

Alkalosis
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 E87.3
ICD-9-CM 276.3
DiseasesDB 32458
MedlinePlus 001183
MeSH D000471

Alkalosis refers to a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia). In contrast to acidemia (serum pH 7.35 or lower), alkalemia occurs when the serum pH is higher than normal (7.45 or higher). Alkalosis is usually divided into the categories of respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis or a combined alkalosis.

Contents

  • Causes 1
  • Signs and symptoms 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4

Causes

Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation,[1] resulting in a loss of carbon dioxide. Compensatory mechanisms for this would include increased dissociation of the carbonic acid buffering intermediate into hydrogen ions, and the related excretion of bicarbonate, both of which lower blood pH. Hyperventilation-induced alkalosis can be seen in several deadly central nervous system diseases such as strokes or Rett syndrome.[1]

Metabolic alkalosis can be caused by repeated vomiting,[1] resulting in a loss of hydrochloric acid with the stomach content. Severe dehydration, and the consumption of alkali are other causes. It can also be caused by administration of diuretics[1] and endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome. Compensatory mechanism for metabolic alkalosis involve slowed breathing by the lungs to increase serum carbon dioxide,[1] a condition leaning toward respiratory acidosis. As respiratory acidosis often accompanies the compensation for metabolic alkalosis, and vice versa, a delicate balance is created between these two conditions.

Signs and symptoms

Metabolic alkalosis is usually accompanied with low blood potassium level, causing, e.g., muscular weakness, muscle pain, and muscle cramps (from disturbed function of the skeletal muscles), and muscle spasms (from disturbed function of smooth muscles).

It may also cause low blood calcium levels. As the blood pH increases, blood transport proteins, such as albumin, become more ionized into anions. This causes the free calcium present in blood to bind more strongly with albumin. If severe, it may cause tetany.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Yee AH, Rabinstein AA (February 2010). "Neurologic presentations of acid-base imbalance, electrolyte abnormalities, and endocrine emergencies". Neurol Clin 28 (1): 1–16.  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.