World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Arvid Harnack

Article Id: WHEBN0002858594
Reproduction Date:

Title: Arvid Harnack  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: KLK Calling PTZ – The Red Orchestra, Red Orchestra (espionage), Arvid, Harnack, Adolf von Harnack
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Arvid Harnack

Arvid Harnack

Arvid Harnack (24 May 1901 in Darmstadt – 22 December 1942 in Berlin) was a German jurist, economist, and resistance fighter in Nazi Germany.

Early years

Harnack was the son of literary history professor Otto Harnack, the elder brother of Falk Harnack, Inge Harnack and Angela Harnack as well as the nephew of theologian Adolf von Harnack. From 1919 to 1923, he studied law in Jena (at the Friedrich Schiller University), Graz, and Hamburg and became a Doctor of Law in 1924.

From 1926 to 1928, he studied Dnieper region. Trips to the United States in 1937 and 1939 would follow, during which Harnack unsuccessfully tried to create a basis of communication with Washington.

Resistance activities

In 1933, after Hitler's rise to power made it necessary to dissolve ARPLAN, Harnack was given a post as a scientific expert in the Reich Economic Ministry. The same year, he also finished his legal qualifications in Jena, successfully completing the junior law examination.

Together with his wife Mildred, the writer Adam Kuckhoff and his wife Greta, Harnack assembled a discussion circle which debated political perspectives on the time after the National Socialists' expected downfall or overthrow.

By 1935, Harnack was active as a lecturer on foreign policy at the University of Berlin.

From 1937 - 41, Harnack, through a contact of his American wife Mildred, held close contact with Donald Heath, the First Secretary at the US Embassy, to inform the US about Hitler's preparations for war. In 1941, after the Americans left Berlin, Harnack was contacted by the Soviets and agreed to supply them with information about Hitler's war preparations. Unbeknownst to him, they supplied him with the code names Balte and Corsican. While Harnack's relations with the Americans had been based on a mutual friendship with Heath, his relation with the Soviets was reluctant as he didn't trust Stalin.

As a cover, Harnack became a member of the NSDAP in 1937. In 1935 came his first contact with Harro Schulze-Boysen, an air force lieutenant and descendant of an old German military family, and in 1940 with the Communists Hilde Rake and Hans Coppi, as well as with Social Democrats like Adolf Grimme.

The resulting network was far reaching and didn't have a name. After the arrests, the Gestapo labeled them Red Orchestra (Rote Kapelle) In the Gestapo's terms, a spy hitting Morsde codes was a pianist, a group of pianists formed an orchestra and as Communists they were red. In reality, the resistance group had members from all walks of life - from political Conservatives to Social Democrats, from Jews to Catholics. The group also ran the full gamut of society, age and, unusual in the history of resistance, it contained 40% women.

In 1941, Harnack sent the Soviets information about the forthcoming invasion. In 1941, Harnack published the resistance magazine Die innere Front ("The Inner Front"). At about the same time, he received information from Rudolf von Scheliha about the Final Solution.

Trial and death

CIC file ref. Mildred Harnack (about 1947)

In 1941, through a Soviet Military blunder, addresses of members of the group were transmitted across Europe in an attempt by the Soviets to re-connect with the resisters. A year later, in July of 1942, the Decryption Department of the Oberkommando des Heeres managed to decode the group's radio messages, and the Gestapo pounced. On 7

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.