World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Circuit of the Americas

Circuit of the Americas
Circuit of the Americas

Full Grand Prix circuit.
Location Travis County, near Austin, Texas
Time zone UTC−6 / −5 (DST)
Capacity 120,000
Owner Circuit of the Americas LLC
Broke ground January 2, 2011
Opened October 21, 2012
Architect Hermann Tilke
Miró Rivera Architects
Major events FIA Formula One
United States Grand Prix
FIM Road Racing World Championship
Grand Prix of the Americas
FIA World Endurance Championship
6 Hours of Circuit of the Americas
V8 Supercars
Austin 400
American Le Mans Series
International Sports Car Weekend
Rolex Sports Car Series
Grand-Am of the Americas
United SportsCar Championship
Lone Star Le Mans
Summer X Games
Grand Prix Circuit (2012–present)
Length 3.427 mi (5.513 km)
Turns 20
Lap record 1:39.347 (Sebastian Vettel, Red Bull Racing, 2012)
Pit lane
Hairpin Turn 11 before completion.
CoTA on race day.
CoTA on Opening Day – Picture Shot from Parking Lot A
Crowds at COTA on race day
Tower at COTA
Collective Soul performing at the Tower Amphitheater
The Austin360 Amphitheater as seen from the top of the tower.
A view of the main straight from Turn 1 (track invasion after the 2014 MotoGP race).
The 251 feet (77 m) observation tower under construction at Circuit of the Americas.

Circuit of the Americas (CoTA) is a 3.427-mile (5.515 km) motor racing circuit in an unincorprated area of Travis County, Texas, just outside of Austin city limits. It is the host of the Formula One United States Grand Prix. The circuit also hosts the Motorcycle Grand Prix of The Americas,[2] a round of the Road Racing World Championship, commonly known as MotoGP, the FIA World Endurance Championship,[3] as well as the Tudor United SportsCar Championship. It previously hosted the Australian V8 Supercars series,[4] the American Le Mans Series,[5] and the Rolex Sports Car Series[6] in 2013.

The circuit and Grand Prix were first proposed in the middle of 2010. The circuit was the first in the United States to be purpose-built for Formula One. The layout was conceived by promoter Tavo Hellmund and 1993 Motorcycle World Champion Kevin Schwantz[7] with the assistance of German architect and circuit designer Hermann Tilke, who has also designed the Sepang, Shanghai, Yas Marina, Istanbul, Bahrain, Yeongam, and Buddh circuits, as well as the reprofiling of the Hockenheimring and Fuji Speedway.

A crowd of 117,429 watched the Formula One race in November 2012.[8]


  • The circuit 1
    • Construction 1.1
    • Configuration 1.2
    • Reception 1.3
  • Major features on site 2
    • Grand Plaza 2.1
    • Observation Tower 2.2
    • Austin360 Amphitheater 2.3
    • Main Grandstand 2.4
  • City endorsement and lawsuit 3
  • Breach of contract and reinstatement 4
    • Dispute over planned MotoGP race 4.1
  • Lap records 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

The circuit


In a news conference on July 27, 2010, Tavo Hellmund announced plans to build the track on about 890 acres (3.6 km2) of undeveloped land in southeastern Travis County. The majority of the site was previously planned for a residential subdivision called "Wandering Creek".[9] In the same news conference, Hellmund also revealed that Texas billionaire Red McCombs was the project's largest investor. McCombs wished to call the site "Speed City",[10] but the owners originally anticipated selling the naming rights to various parts of the facility for $7 million.[11] On April 12, 2011, the track's name was announced as "Circuit of the Americas" at a press conference.[12] The circuit homologation design was submitted to the FIA in Geneva for approval on December 17, 2010. HKS, Inc. and Tilke Engineers & Architects designed the track and Austin Commercial, a subsidiary of Austin Industries, was the general contractor. Construction began on December 31, 2010,[13] and was due to be complete by June 2012.[14] Following a stop-work order in December 2011, the completion date was revised to August.[15] The first tasks were building the silt fences, taking core samples, and shredding existing vegetation.[16]

On January 21, 2011, a $900,000 check was posted with Travis County that permitted grading to begin. The money was to be used to restore the land if the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) declined to allow the project to move forward because part of the site lies in a floodplain.[17] FEMA issued a letter on June 28, 2011, stating the project meets its floodplain management criteria.

In January 2012, Travis County announced that Elroy Road—one of the two primary public access roads to the circuit—would receive an upgrade to handle the volume of incoming traffic, but not before the running of the 2012 race.[18] At the time of the announcement, the unstable clay soils under the road surface had caused Elroy Road to gradually buckle and shift, necessitating the upgrade.

On June 13, 2012, Charlie Whiting—the FIA-appointed Race Director for Formula One—declared himself satisfied with the circuit's construction, scheduling a final pre-race inspection of the circuit for September 25, sixty days before the first race,[19] which the circuit later passed.[20]

The first layer of asphalt was completed on August 3, 2012.[21] Construction began laying the final layer of asphalt on August 14,[22] and was finished on September 21.[23] The track was officially opened on October 21, with Mario Andretti running the ceremonial first laps in a Lotus 79, the car he drove when he became the last American to win the World Drivers' Championship in 1978.[24]

The Grand Plaza, Observation Structure, Tower Amphitheater, and Main Grandstand were designed by Austin-based architectural firm Miró Rivera Architects.


In an episode of Speed TV's Wind Tunnel program broadcast on August 22, 2010, Tavo Hellmund revealed that the circuit would be 3.4 miles (5.5 km) long and would be made up of twenty turns with an elevation change of 133 feet (41 m). The final plan of the circuit was released on September 1, 2010, showing a design inspired by the European tradition of sculpting the circuit to the contours of the land. The design draws from several European Formula One circuits, including a recreation of Silverstone's Maggotts-Becketts-Chapel sequence, Hockenheim's arena bends, and a replica of Istanbul's Turn Eight.[25] Other corners were loosely inspired by the Senna 'S' at Interlagos and the Österreichring's Sebring-Auspuffkurve.[7] A feature of the circuit is a deliberate widening of corners, to encourage drivers to follow multiple racing lines.[26] A similar feature was used at the Buddh International Circuit in India, where the circuit widens on the approach to certain corners.

The circuit was one of only a handful on the Formula One 2012 calendar to be run counter-clockwise, the others being Marina Bay, the Korea International Circuit, Yas Marina, and Interlagos. Because of this, the circuit contains more left-hand turns than right-hand ones, placing greater physical demands on the drivers whose bodies, particularly their necks, are more adapted to the lateral g-forces of clockwise circuits.

From the start line, the drivers climb to the first corner—the highest point of the circuit—with the apex of the corner positioned on the crest of the hill. They descend the hill to navigate a series of fast sweepers modeled on Silverstone's Maggotts-Becketts-Chapel complex and through a blind corner at Turn 10, taking them to the far end of the circuit and a hairpin at Turn 11. The drivers then follow a 0.62-mile (1.00 km) straight back towards the pit and paddock area before entering the final sector of the lap and weaving through a series of corners modeled on Hockenheim's stadium section. This is be followed by a downhill, multi-apex corner with limited run-off before the final two corners of the circuit, a pair of left-hand bends that return the drivers to the main straight.


The reception from drivers ahead of the inaugural race was highly positive. Fernando Alonso and Lewis Hamilton both praised the circuit, suggesting that it would be considerably more difficult to learn than other recent additions to the Formula One calendar.[27] Jenson Button described the first sector as "spectacular", but remarked that he felt that starting second would be better than starting first as the placement of pole position put it on a steeper incline than the rest of the grid.[28] Kamui Kobayashi, on the other hand, was less complimentary, claiming that he did not feel intimidated by the steep climb to the first corner as it was no different from Eau Rouge at the Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps, and accusing the media of hyping it up without precedent.[28] Mark Webber was also unimpressed, stating that while he enjoyed driving the first sector of the circuit, the second and third sectors were similar to other circuits on the calendar.[29]

Major features on site

Grand Plaza

Bordered by the track on three sides, the Grand Plaza is a 20 acres (0.081 km2) space designed by Miró Rivera Architects of Austin, Texas that includes a large reflecting pool, lawn, and varying landscape zones. A promenade along the north side of the Grand Plaza hosts concessions, retail, restroom facilities, and entrances to spectator seating. From the southeast end of the Grand Plaza, two pedestrian bridges cross over turns 16 and 3 to provide access for visitors to other areas of the circuit complex.[30]

Observation Tower

Circuit of the Americas features a 251 feet (77 m) observation tower designed by Miró Rivera Architects and built by Patriot Erectors as a landmark for the venue. The structure of the tower consists of an elevator hoist-way surrounded by a double-helix staircase of 419 stairs, both of which lead to an observation platform 230 feet (70 m) above ground level. The platform provides a 360-degree panorama of the circuit, as well as views to downtown Austin, Texas. The observation platform, which is accessible to the public for an admission fee, can accommodate up to 70 visitors and features glass railings and a partial glass floor.[31] In addition, a "veil" consisting of 18 bright red steel tubes runs nearly the full height of the tower, acting as a canopy for both the observation platform and the stage below. The design of the observation tower was inspired by the visual imagery of sports cars and movement, and the red color was selected to mimic the streaks of lights trailing racecars at night.[32]

Austin360 Amphitheater

On July 23, 2012, COTA announced a booking agreement with Live Nation to book major concerts at an open air amphitheater to be built at the base of the observation tower. Designed by Miró Rivera Architects, the venue opened in April 2013 with a concert by Kenny Chesney.[33] The amphitheater will accommodate up to 14,000 people with 5,240 permanent reserved seats. Another 1,700 seats can be configured on the stage-front floor or there is standing room for 2,300. The remaining general admission spots are on a sloping grass area behind the reserved seats. The venue was originally going to be called Tower Amphitheater, but in March 2013, was renamed to Austin360 Amphitheater, with naming rights sold to the entertainment/events website associated with the Austin American-Statesman.[34]

Main Grandstand

The primary permanent seating at Circuit of the Americas is located within the Main Grandstand, designed by Miró Rivera Architects.[35] Above-ground construction on the grandstand began in March 2012, and the "topping out" occurred in June 2012 with completion in time for the inaugural United States Grand Prix.

The Main Grandstand is 65 feet (20 m) tall, and has a total capacity of approximately 9,000 spectators. The seating is divided into three levels: lower level (capacity ~5400, including Loge Boxes), club level (capacity ~2900), and suite level (capacity ~750). The majority of seating is covered by a tensile fabric canopy. The primary structure is 500 feet (150 m) long, while the lower risers extend an additional 500 feet. The grandstand also contains concessions, restrooms, offices, and two lounge spaces located at the second and third levels. The Velocity Lounge on the second level is approximately 7,100 square feet (660 m2), and contains a 36-screen video wall and the acrylic painting "Velocity" by Dallas-based artist Christopher Martin measuring 120 feet (37 m) in length.[36]

Both the Main Grandstand and the concessions buildings in the Grand Plaza were conceived as a modular system consisting of several components that can be arranged according to need. The concessions, with banners and deep canopies, can be expanded with restrooms, permanent seating or suites. Inherent to this “kit-of-parts” construction system is flexibility allowing the site to grow and change.[30]

City endorsement and lawsuit

In order for the race to take place, the Austin city council was asked to be the sponsoring municipality for the event. Through being a sponsor, the city could apply for money from a state fund, the Major Events Trust Fund (METF), designed to attract major sporting events to Texas that would be used to pay the Formula One race sanctioning fee.[37] This matter was complicated by opponents of the project who filed a lawsuit against state comptroller Susan Combs, claiming that she had promised the funding to the circuit without having been legally authorized to do so,[38] though promoters have responded stating that all necessary guidelines had been followed. On July 1, 2011, a state district court judge declined to enter a temporary restraining order against Combs preventing payments from the METF; none-the-less, Texas Comptroller Combs reconsidered and chose not to make the July 31 advance payment to FOMC/Bernard Ecclestone as previously agreed for the first year's sanctioning fee. The attorney for the project's opponents has stated that he is unsure if they will continue pursuing the lawsuit.[39]

In June 2011, the Austin city council agreed to allow the circuit to apply to the Texas Major Events Trust Fund but withheld its full endorsement requiring the circuit to pay the financial match normally borne by the local government sponsor. As a part of the endorsement, the sport will pay $15,000 in carbon offsets and $5 million to establish an on-site research project into environmentally friendly technologies.

Breach of contract and reinstatement

In November 2011, FIA World Motorsport Council or else risk being removed from the 2012 calendar. Ecclestone emphasized that if the Circuit of the Americas were removed from the calendar, it would not be added again at a later date.

On December 7, 2011, the World Motorsport Council released the final calendar for the 2012 season, with the Circuit of the Americas retaining its November 18 date. Further details revealed that the race investors, McCombs and Epstein, had reached a new arrangement with Ecclestone, with work on the circuit scheduled to resume immediately.[43] As a part of the arrangement, organizers paid the sanctioning fee for the 2012 race one year in advance as a show of good faith.[44] At the time of the circuit's reinstatement, there were no reports supporting Tavo Hellmund's continued involvement under the new contract. On March 4, 2012, The Austin American-Statesman reported that Hellmund had launched legal proceedings against investors Bobby Epstein and Red McCombs, with Hellmund claiming that he was still a part of the management company and had not been paid since September.[45] Further details emerged, reporting that Hellmund was in the process of attempting to acquire Epstein's interest in the company, describing the condition of the circuit as of 4 March as "teetering".[46] Epstein responded to the lawsuit by stating that Hellmund had been found to have been in breach of contract by Formula One Management.[46]

In June 2012, the dispute between Hellmund and Epstein was reported to have been settled out of court.[47]

Dispute over planned MotoGP race

In April 2011, plans were unveiled by Tavo Hellmund of Full Throttle Productions and Kevin Schwantz of 3fourTexas for the circuit to host a round of the 2013 MotoGP World Championship, with the race to be known as the Texas Grand Prix.[12] The race was the brainchild of Schwantz, the circuit co-designer, who would serve as event promoter with his company, 3fourTexas. However, following the settlement of the lawsuit between Tavo Hellmund and Bobby Epstein, Schwantz announced that he would be suing Steve Sexton. Schwantz claimed that upon the resolution of the dispute between Hellmund and Epstein, Sexton moved to negotiate directly with MotoGP's commercial rights holder, Dorna Sports, ignoring what he claimed was an existing contract between Dorna and 3fourTexas to hold the race.[48] Circuit representatives denied that there was ever a contract between Schwantz and the Circuit of the Americas, and that his dispute was with Dorna Sports.[49] Dorna later claimed that although a contract for the race between Dorna and Schwantz had existed, the contract had been terminated in July 2012 as they believed Schwantz had failed to acquire the necessary rights from the circuit to hold the race.[50] Schwantz then accused Sexton and the Circuit of the Americas of "undermining" him, deliberately blocking his attempts to establish a race in order to have the contract terminated and allowing them to negotiate a more-favourable arrangement with Dorna.[51]

In October 2012, Dorna Sports announced that they had come to agreeable terms with organisers of the Texas motorcycle Grand Prix, including the race on the 2013 calendar as the Motorcycle Grand Prix of the Americas, but made no mention of the dispute with Schwantz or any outcome of it.[2]

Prior of the 2014 Motorcycle Grand Prix of the Americas, the circuit announced that COTA and Schwantz had amicably settled their legal differences and reached an agreement to collaborate to promote motorcycling racing, with Schwantz taking the role as official ambassador for COTA.[52][53]

Lap records

Event Class Time Car/bike
2012 United States Grand Prix F1 1:39.347 Red Bull RB8
2013 6 Hours of Circuit of the Americas LMP1 1:47.868 Audi R18
2013 6 Hours of Circuit of the Americas LMP2 1:54.559 Oreca 03
2013 Grand-Am of The Americas DP 2:00.026 Corvette
2013 6 Hours of Circuit of the Americas LMGTE 2:03.520 Ferrari 458 Italia
2014 Motorcycle Grand Prix of the Americas MotoGP 2:02.773 Honda
2014 Motorcycle Grand Prix of the Americas Moto2 2:10.135 Kalex
2014 Motorcycle Grand Prix of the Americas Moto3 2:16.342 KTM
2013 Austin 400 V8 1:33.5951 Holden VF Commodore
2014 Formula Sun Grand Prix Solar EV 4:35.285 Iowa State University Phaeton

† uses a shorter 3.7 km section of the track.


  1. ^ "X GAMES AUSTIN COMING TO CIRCUIT OF THE AMERICAS". Circuit of the Americas. July 17, 2013. Retrieved June 3, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "MotoGP to race in Texas in 2013 at the Circuit of The Americas". ( 
  3. ^ Dagys, John (28 September 2012). "LE MANS: 2013 WEC Schedule Release".  
  4. ^ "Official: V8 Supercars Coming to Austin in 2013". (AOL Autos). June 30, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2011. 
  5. ^ "ALMS: Series to Race at COTA in 2013". (SPEED). June 1, 2012. Retrieved June 1, 2012. 
  6. ^ "GRAND-AM: 12-Race 2013 Rolex Series Calendar Revealed".  
  7. ^ a b Maher, John (23 April 2012). "Turn for turn, Austin track's design, layout should look familiar to F1 drivers". Austin-American Statesman. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
  8. ^ Spurgeon, Brad (18 November 2012). "Formula One Makes Successful Return to U.S.".  
  9. ^ Novak, Shonda (July 27, 2010). "Future F1 site revealed".  
  10. ^ Maher, John (July 27, 2010). "Red McCombs named investor in Austin Formula One project".  
  11. ^ Dexheimer, Eric (August 23, 2010). "How much would Austin F1 track be worth in naming rights?".  
  12. ^ a b "Texas lands MotoGP from 2013". ( 
  13. ^ Noble, Jonathan (December 31, 2010). "Construction begins at new US GP venue". ( 
  14. ^ Hinkle, Josh (July 19, 2010). "Formula 1 groundbreaking date released". KXAN. Retrieved August 14, 2010. 
  15. ^ "Austin F1 track set for August completion". Autosport. 19 January 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  16. ^ "Work starts on Austin track". December 31, 2010. Archived from the original on January 30, 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2011. 
  17. ^ Dexheimer, Eric (January 24, 2011). "F1 to start moving dirt soon".  
  18. ^ Wear, Ben (January 9, 2012). "Elroy Road to be widened, but not before first F1 race". Austin-American Statesman. Retrieved January 11, 2012. 
  19. ^ "Charlie Whiting happy with Circuit de the Americas' progress". ( 
  20. ^ Cooper, Adam (26 September 2012). "Whiting Says COTA Ready For Formula One". SPEED Channel. Fox Sports. Retrieved 26 September 2012. 
  21. ^ "First lap of tarmac laid at COTA". GP Update. 3 August 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  22. ^ "COTA begins final paving process". GP Update. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  23. ^ "COTA Completes Track Pavement With Success". (Circuit of the Americas). 21 September 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  24. ^ "Circuit of the Americas. The first lap.". Circuit of the Americas. Retrieved 23 October 2012. 
  25. ^ "Austin circuit layout revealed". ( 
  26. ^ Sutton, Mark (June 20, 2011). "F1 Texan style". ESPN F1 (ESPN Emea Ltd.). Retrieved June 22, 2011. 
  27. ^ Collantine, Keith (16 November 2012). "F1 drivers have positive first impression of COTA". F1 Fanatic (Keith Collantine). Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  28. ^ a b Noble, Jonathan; Elizale, Pablo (15 November 2012). "United States GP: Jenson Button says Austin perfect showcase for F1". ( 
  29. ^ Collantine, Keith (17 November 2012). "Drivers praise COTA but race prospects aren’t good". F1 Fanatic (Keith Collantine). Retrieved 17 November 2012. But fellow Australian Mark Webber was not quite as fulsome in praise, pointing out that after the first sector it became much like any other modern circuit: “It’s a pretty good track, it’s quick, especially the first sector which is quite full on, although sectors two and three are more traditional and similar to other tracks.” 
  30. ^ a b "Formula 1 Facilities Look Fast and Fresh". EYES IN Architecture. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  31. ^ "Scarlet cascade for observation tower". World Architecture News. 16 November 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  32. ^ Bernstein, Fred A. (15 November 2012). "A Towering Landmark for Formula One Track". The New York Times "Wheels" Blog. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  33. ^ Doolittle, Dave (23 July 2012). "Live Nation to book national touring concerts at circuit amphitheater". Austin-American Statesman. Retrieved 6 September 2012. 
  34. ^ "Austin360 Amphitheater at racetrack set to be Austin area’s largest outdoor venue". Austin-American Statesman. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  35. ^ Maher, John (12 January 2012). "Austin firm pushes to finish F1 track work". Austin-American Statesman. Retrieved 6 September 2012. 
  36. ^ Morgan, Kendall (8 November 2012). "Dallas artist Christopher Martin adds epic accent to Austin’s Circuit of the Americas". CultureMap Dallas. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  37. ^ Toohey, Marty (June 23, 2011). "Austin council delays vote on whether to endorse F1". (American Statesman). Retrieved June 25, 2011. 
  38. ^ Saward, Joe (June 23, 2011). "A lawsuit in America... how predictable". Joe Saward blogs about the world of F1 (Joe Saward). Retrieved June 23, 2011. 
  39. ^ Dexheimer, Eric (July 1, 2011). "Judge Rules against Formula One subsidy opponents". Austin-American Statesman. Retrieved July 4, 2011. 
  40. ^ Noble, Jonathan (November 1, 2011). "Formula 1 chiefs to discuss 2012 calendar amid concerns over some races".  
  41. ^ "Circuit of the Americas halts construction in contract dispute". F1 Fanatic. 2011-11-15. Retrieved 2012-08-16. 
  42. ^ "Texas finance chief confirms New Jersey race threatens Austin eventJames Allen on F1 – The official James Allen website on F1". Retrieved 2012-08-16. 
  43. ^ "News". The Austin Grand Prix. Retrieved 2012-08-16. 
  44. ^ .USA Today"Formula One to return to U.S. at U.S. Grand Prix in Texas" Retrieved Dec. 10, 2011.
  45. ^ Maher, John (3 March 2012). "F1 promoter sues other race investors". The Austin Statesman. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  46. ^ a b Noble, Jonathan (4 March 2012). "Tavo Hellmund in legal dispute with Austin Grand Prix". ( 
  47. ^ Benz, Kevin (9 June 2012). "Austin's Grand Prix lawsuit settled: Race day drama averted". Culturemap Austin. Retrieved 10 June 2012. 
  48. ^ Maher, John (7 September 2012). "Former MotoGP champ sues over rights to events". Austin-American Statesman. Retrieved 15 September 2012. 
  49. ^ Maher, John (8 September 2012). "Circuit of the Americas claims Schwantz lawsuit baseless". Austin-American Statesman. Retrieved 15 September 2012. 
  50. ^ "MotoGP rights holder Dorna says it terminated contract with Schwantz in July". Austin-American Statesman. 12 September 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012. 
  51. ^ Maher, John (13 September 2012). "Schwantz fires back at COTA, Dorna". Austin-American Statesman. Retrieved 15 September 2012. 
  52. ^ "Kevin Schwantz joins Circuit of The Americas™ as motorcycle racing ambassador". Circuit Of the Americas. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014. 
  53. ^ "Kevin Schwantz, COTA reach settlement ahead of MotoGP event". 28 March 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014. 

External links

  • Circuit of the Americas – Official website
  • United States Grand Prix at Austin – Official website
  • Miró Rivera Architects.
  • Pictures of the course
  • Circuit of the Americas Seating Charts
  • Circuit of the Americas on Google Maps (Current Formula 1 Tracks)
  • Circuit of the Americas circuit guide
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.