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Graeme Ruxton

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Graeme Ruxton

Graeme Ruxton is a zoologist known for his research into behavioural ecology and evolutionary ecology.

Contents

  • Life and work 1
  • Publications 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Life and work

Ruxton received his PhD in Statistics and Modelling Science in 1992 from the University of Strathclyde. His studies focus on the evolutionary pressures on aggregation by animals, and predator-prey aspects of sensory ecology. He researched visual communication in animals at the University of Glasgow, where he was professor of theoretical ecology.[1] In 2013 he became professor at the University of St Andrews, Scotland.[2][3]

Publications

Ruxton contributed to the textbook:

  • Ruxton, G. D.; Speed, M. P.; Sherratt, T. N. (2004). Avoiding Attack. The Evolutionary Ecology of Crypsis, Warning Signals and Mimicry. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-852860-4

Ruxton has published papers on antipredator adaptations including:

  • Ruxton G.D., Jackson A.L., Tosh C.R. 2007 Confusion of predators does not rely on specialist coordinated behavior. BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY 18 (3): 590-596 MAY-JUN
  • Speed M.P., Ruxton G.D. 2007 How bright and how nasty: Explaining diversity in warning signal strength. EVOLUTION 61 (3): 623-635
  • Merilaita S., Ruxton G.D. 2007 Aposematic signals and the relationship between conspicuousness and distinctiveness. JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL BIOLOGY 245 (2): 268-277
  • Skelhorn J., Ruxton G.D. 2006 Avian predators attack aposematic prey more forcefully when they are part of an aggregation. BIOLOGY LETTERS 2 (4): 488-490 DEC 22
  • Jackson, A.L., Beuchamp, G., Broom, M., and Ruxton, G.D. 2006 Evolution of anti-predator traits in response to a flexible targeting strategy by predators. Proceedings Of The Royal Society Of London Series B-Biological Sciences 273, 1590, 1055-1062
  • Ruxton, G. 2006 Behavioural ecology - Grasshoppers don't play possum. Nature 440, 7086, 880-880
  • Jackson, A. L. and Ruxton, G.D. 2006 Toward an individual-level understanding of vigilance: the role of social information. Behavioral Ecology 17, 4, 532-538
  • Ruxton, G.D. and Speed, M.P. 2006 How can automimicry persist when predators can preferentially consume undefended mimics? Proceedings Of The Royal Society Of London Series B-Biological Sciences 273, 1584, 373-378
  • Proctor, C.J., Broom, M., and Ruxton, G.D. 2006 Antipredator vigilance in birds: Modelling the 'edge' effect. Mathematical Biosciences 199, 1, 79-96
  • Tosh, C.R., Jackson, A.L., and Ruxton, G.D. 2006 The confusion effect in predatory neural networks. American Naturalist 167, 2, E52-E65
  • Speed, M.P., Ruxton, G.D., and Broom, M. 2006 Automimicry and the evolution of discrete prey defences. Biological Journal Of The Linnean Society 87, 3, 393-402
  • Broom, M., Speed, M.P., and Ruxton, G.D. 2006 Evolutionarily stable defence and signalling of that defence. Journal of Theoretical Biology 242, 1, 32-43
  • Skelhorn, J. and Ruxton, G.D. 2006 Avian predators attack aposematic prey more forcefully when they are part of an aggregation. Biology Letters 2, 4, 488-490
  • Inger, R., Bearhop, S., Robinson, J.A., and Ruxton, G.D. 2006 Prey choice affects the trade-off balance between predation and starvation in an avian herbivore. Animal Behaviour 71, 6, 1335-1341
  • Ruxton, G.D. and Kennedy, M.W. 2006 Peppers and poisons: the evolutionary ecology of bad taste. Journal Of Animal Ecology 75, 5, 1224-1226
  • Ruxton, G.D. and Sherrat, T.N. 2006 Aggregation, defence and warning signals: the evolutionary relationship. Proceedings Of The Royal Society Of London Series B-Biological Sciences 273, 1600, 2417-2424
  • Morrell, L.J., Lindstrom, J., and Ruxton, G.D. 2005 Why are small males aggressive? Proceedings Of The Royal Society Of London Series B-Biological Sciences 272, 1569, 1235-1241
  • Ruxton, G.D. 2005 Intimidating butterflies. Trends In Ecology & Evolution 20, 6 Special, 276-278
  • Ruxton, G.D. and Speed, M. P. 2005 Evolution: A taste for mimicry. Nature 433, 7023, 205-207
  • Speed, M.P. and Ruxton, G.D. 2005 Aposematism: what should our starting point be? Proceedings Of The Royal Society Of London Series B-Biological Sciences 272, 1561, 431-438
  • Speed, M.P., Kelly, D. J., Davidson, A. M., and Ruxton, G.D. 2005 Countershading enhances crypsis with some bird species but not others. Behavioral Ecology 16, 2, 327-334
  • Broom, M., Speed, M.P., and Ruxton, G.D. 2005 Evolutionarily stable investment in secondary defences. Functional Ecology 19, 5, 836-843
  • Speed, M.P. and Ruxton, G.D. 2005 Warning displays in spiny animals: One (more) evolutionary route to aposematism. Evolution 59, 12, 2499-2508
  • Jackson, A.L., Ruxton, G.D., Brown, S., and Sherratt, T. N. 2005 The effects of group size, shape and composition on ease of detection of cryptic prey. Behaviour 142, 6, 811-826
  • Ruxton, G.D., Fraser, C., and Broom, M. 2005 An evolutionarily stable joining policy for group foragers. Behavioral Ecology 16, 5, 856-864
  • Sherratt, T.N., Speed, M.P., and Ruxton, G.D. 2004 Natural selection on unpalatable species imposed by state-dependent foraging behaviour. Journal of Theoretical Biology 228, 2, 217-226
  • Broom, M., Luther, R.M., and Ruxton, G.D. 2004 Resistance is useless? - Extensions to the game theory of kleptoparasitism. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 66, 6, 1645-1658
  • Ruxton, G.D., Speed, M. P., and Kelly, D.J. 2004 What, if anything, is the adaptive function of countershading? Animal Behaviour 68, 3, 445-451
  • Beauchamp, G. and Ruxton, G.D. 2003 Changes in vigilance with group size under scramble competition. American Naturalist 161, 4, 672-675
  • Ruxton, G.D. 1998 Mimicry - Sheep in wolves' clothing. Nature 394, 6696, 833-834

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^

External links

  • University of Glasgow bio of Ruxton
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