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Title: Kir2dl4  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, CD3 (immunology), CD79B, IL18R1, CD16
Collection: Clusters of Differentiation, Immunoglobulin Superfamily
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, two domains, long cytoplasmic tail, 4

Rendering of KIR2DL4 from PDB
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols  ; CD158D; G9P; KIR-103AS; KIR103; KIR103AS
External IDs GeneCards:
RNA expression pattern
Species Human Mouse
Entrez n/a
Ensembl n/a
UniProt n/a
RefSeq (mRNA) n/a
RefSeq (protein) n/a
Location (UCSC) n/a
PubMed search n/a

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIR2DL4 gene.[1][2] Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets of T cells. The KIR genes are polymorphic and highly homologous and they are found in a cluster on chromosome 19q13.4 within the 1 Mb leukocyte receptor complex (LRC). The gene content of the KIR gene cluster varies among haplotypes, although several "framework" genes are found in all haplotypes (KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR3DL4, KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they have a long (L) or short (S) cytoplasmic domain. KIR proteins with the long cytoplasmic domain transduce inhibitory signals upon ligand binding via an immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), while KIR proteins with the short cytoplasmic domain lack the ITIM motif and instead associate with the TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein to transduce activating signals. The ligands for several KIR proteins are subsets of HLA class I molecules; thus, KIR proteins are thought to play an important role in regulation of the immune response. This gene is one of the "framework" loci that is present on all haplotypes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[2]

See also


  1. ^ Selvakumar A, Steffens U, Dupont B (May 1997). "NK cell receptor gene of the KIR family with two IG domains but highest homology to KIR receptors with three IG domains". Tissue Antigens 48 (4 Pt 1): 285–94.  
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: KIR2DL4 killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, two domains, long cytoplasmic tail, 4". 

Further reading

  • Selvakumar A, Steffens U, Dupont B (1997). "Polymorphism and domain variability of human killer cell inhibitory receptors.". Immunol. Rev. 155: 183–96.  
  • Selvakumar A, Steffens U, Palanisamy N, et al. (1997). "Genomic organization and allelic polymorphism of the human killer cell inhibitory receptor gene KIR103.". Tissue Antigens 49 (6): 564–73.  
  • Valiante NM, Uhrberg M, Shilling HG, et al. (1998). "Functionally and structurally distinct NK cell receptor repertoires in the peripheral blood of two human donors.". Immunity 7 (6): 739–51.  
  • Uhrberg M, Valiante NM, Shum BP, et al. (1998). "Human diversity in killer cell inhibitory receptor genes.". Immunity 7 (6): 753–63.  
  • Rajagopalan S, Long EO (1999). "A human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G-specific receptor expressed on all natural killer cells.". J. Exp. Med. 189 (7): 1093–100.  
  • Rajalingam R, Gardiner CM, Canavez F, et al. (2001). "Identification of seventeen novel KIR variants: fourteen of them from two non-Caucasian donors.". Tissue Antigens 57 (1): 22–31.  
  • Rajagopalan S, Fu J, Long EO (2001). "Cutting edge: induction of IFN-gamma production but not cytotoxicity by the killer cell Ig-like receptor KIR2DL4 (CD158d) in resting NK cells.". J. Immunol. 167 (4): 1877–81.  
  • Witt CS, Whiteway JM, Warren HS, et al. (2002). "Alleles of the KIR2DL4 receptor and their lack of association with pre-eclampsia.". Eur. J. Immunol. 32 (1): 18–29.  
  • Yusa S, Catina TL, Campbell KS (2002). "SHP-1- and phosphotyrosine-independent inhibitory signaling by a killer cell Ig-like receptor cytoplasmic domain in human NK cells.". J. Immunol. 168 (10): 5047–57.  
  • Faure M, Long EO (2002). "KIR2DL4 (CD158d), an NK cell-activating receptor with inhibitory potential.". J. Immunol. 168 (12): 6208–14.  
  • Santourlidis S, Trompeter HI, Weinhold S, et al. (2002). "Crucial role of DNA methylation in determination of clonally distributed killer cell Ig-like receptor expression patterns in NK cells.". J. Immunol. 169 (8): 4253–61.  
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903.  
  • Chan HW, Kurago ZB, Stewart CA, et al. (2003). "DNA methylation maintains allele-specific KIR gene expression in human natural killer cells.". J. Exp. Med. 197 (2): 245–55.  
  • Becker S, Tonn T, Füssel T, et al. (2003). "Assessment of killer cell immunoglobulinlike receptor expression and corresponding HLA class I phenotypes demonstrates heterogenous KIR expression independent of anticipated HLA class I ligands.". Hum. Immunol. 64 (2): 183–93.  
  • Gómez-Lozano N, de Pablo R, Puente S, Vilches C (2003). "Recognition of HLA-G by the NK cell receptor KIR2DL4 is not essential for human reproduction.". Eur. J. Immunol. 33 (3): 639–44.  
  • Stewart CA, Van Bergen J, Trowsdale J (2003). "Different and divergent regulation of the KIR2DL4 and KIR3DL1 promoters.". J. Immunol. 170 (12): 6073–81.  
  • Williams F, Maxwell LD, Halfpenny IA, et al. (2004). "Multiple copies of KIR 3DL/S1 and KIR 2DL4 genes identified in a number of individuals.". Hum. Immunol. 64 (7): 729–32.  
  • Goodridge JP, Witt CS, Christiansen FT, Warren HS (2003). "KIR2DL4 (CD158d) genotype influences expression and function in NK cells.". J. Immunol. 171 (4): 1768–74.  

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