World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Lucknow Pact

Article Id: WHEBN0001705212
Reproduction Date:

Title: Lucknow Pact  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Fourteen Points of Jinnah, Partition of India, Indian independence movement, Day of Deliverance (India)
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Lucknow Pact

Lucknow Pact refers to an agreement reached between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League at the joint session of both the parties, held in Lucknow, in the year 1916. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, then a member of the Congress as well as the League, made both the parties reach an agreement to pressure the British government to adopt a more liberal approach to India and give Indians more authority to run their country, besides safeguarding basic Muslim demands. After the unpopular partition of Bengal, Jinnah approached the League to make it more popular among the Muslim masses. Jinnah himself was the mastermind and architect of this pact. Due to the reconciliation brought about by Jinnah between the Congress and the League, the Nightingale of India, Sarojini Naidu, gave him the title of “the Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity”.

The Lucknow Pact also established cordial relations between the two prominent groups of the Indian National Congress – the "hot faction" garam dal led by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and the moderates or the "soft faction", the naram dal led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

Muslim League and Congress

As a result of the hard work of Mr. Jinnah and Mahajan from congresss , both the Muslim League and the Congress met for their annual sessions at Imperial Legislative Council addressed a memorandum to the Viceroy on the subject of reforms in October 1916. Their suggestions did not become news in the British circle, but were discussed, amended and accepted at a subsequent meeting of the Congress and Muslim League leaders at Calcutta in November 1916. This meeting settled the details of an agreement about the composition of the legislatures and the quantum of representation to be allowed to the two communities. The agreement was confirmed by the annual sessions of the Congress and the League in their annual sessions held at Lucknow on December 29 and December 31, 1916 respectively. Sarojini Naidu gave Jinnah, the chief architect of the Lucknow Pact, the title of "the Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity".

Main Features

  1. There shall be self-government in India.
  2. The same method should be adopted for the Executive Councils of Governors.
  3. The Indian Council must be abolished.
  4. The salaries of the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs should be paid by the British government and not from Indian funds.
  5. The executive should be separated from the judiciary.
  6. The number of Muslims in the provincial legislatures should be laid down province by province.
  7. Muslims should be given 1/3 representation in Central Govt.
  8. There should be separate electorates for all communities until they ask for joint electorate.
  9. System of weight-age should be adopted.
  10. Term of Legislative Council should be 5 years.
  11. Half of the members of Imperial Legislative Council must be Indians.

Sarojini Naidu said that Jinnah is the ambassador of hindu-muslim unity. Tilak made a very significant proposal that congress should appoint a small working committee that would be responsible for implementation of its annual resolutions passed in annual sessions. it was unfortunately quashed by moderates in congress.

Complete Text


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.