World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Photopsin

Article Id: WHEBN0000641537
Reproduction Date:

Title: Photopsin  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Cone cell, Photoreceptor protein, Sensory receptors, Photopigment, Fish/Quiz
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Photopsin

Normalised absorption spectra of the three human photopsins and of human rhodopsin (dashed).

Photopsins (also known as Cone opsins) are the photoreceptor proteins found in the cone cells of the retina that are the basis of color vision. Iodopsin, the cone pigment system in chicken retina, is a close analog of the visual purple rhodopsin that is used in night vision. Iodopsin consists of the protein component and a bound chromophore, retinal.

Contents

  • Function 1
  • Types 2
  • History 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Function

Opsins are Gn-x protein-coupled receptors of the retinylidene protein family. Isomerization of 11-cis-retinal into all-trans-retinal by light induces a conformational change in the protein that activates photopsin and promotes its binding to G protein transducin, which triggers a second messenger cascade.

Types

Different opsins differ in a few amino acids and absorb light at different wavelengths as retinal-bound pigments.

Cone type Name Range Peak wavelength[1][2]
S (OPN1SW) - "tritan", "cyanolabe" β 400–500 nm 420–440 nm
M (OPN1MW) - "deutan", "chlorolabe" γ 450–630 nm 534–545 nm
L (OPN1LW) - "protan", "erythrolabe" ρ 500–700 nm 564–580 nm

In humans there are 3 different iodopsins (rhodopsin analogs) that contain the protein-pigment complexes photopsin I, II, and III.

The 3 types of iodopsins are called erythrolabe(photopsin I + retinal), chlorolabe(photopsin II + retinal), and cyanolabe(photopsin III + retinal).[3]

These photopsins have absorption maxima for red ["erythr"-red] (photopsin I), green ["chlor"-green] (photopsin II), and bluish-violet light ["cyan"-bluish violet] (photopsin III).

History

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his experiments in the 1950s that showed the difference in absorbance by these photopsins (see image).

See also

References

  1. ^ Wyszecki, Günther; Stiles, W.S. (1982). Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics.  
  2. ^ R. W. G. Hunt (2004). The Reproduction of Colour (6th ed.). Chichester UK: Wiley–IS&T Series in Imaging Science and Technology. pp. 11–12.  
  3. ^ Rushton, W. A. H. (1 June 1966). "Densitometry of pigments in rods and cones of normal and color defective subjects" (PDF). Investigative Ophthalmology 5 (3): 233–241.  

External links

  • Rhodopsin and the eye, an excellent summary with pictures.


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.