World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0022126816
Reproduction Date:

Title: Trichostrongylus  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Hartebeest, Helminthiasis, Grévy's zebra, Doramectin, Habronema, Trichostrongylus tenuis
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Egg of Trichostrongylus sp.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Nematoda
Class: Chromadorea
Order: Rhabditida
Family: Trichostrongylidae
Genus: Trichostrongylus

Trichostrongylus species are nematodes (round worms), which are ubiquitous among herbivores worldwide, including cattle, sheep, donkeys, goats, deer, and rabbits.[1][2][3] At least 10 Trichostrongylus species have been associated with human infections.[1] Infections occur via ingestion of infective larvae from contaminated vegetables or water.[1][3] Epidemiological studies indicate a worldwide distribution of Trichostrongylus infections in humans, with the highest prevalence rates observed in individuals from regions with poor sanitary conditions, in rural areas, or who are farmers / herders.[4][5] Human infections are most prevalent in the Middle East and Asia,[3] with a worldwide estimated prevalence of 5.5 million people.[1]

Clinical presentation

The majority of human infections are asymptomatic or associated with mild symptoms. Symptomatic individuals may experience abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, flatulence, dizziness, generalized fatigue, and malaise.[1][2][3] Eosinophilia is frequently observed.[1][2][3] Infections with a heavy worm burden can lead to anemia, cholecystitis, and emaciation.[1][3]


The adult worms live in the small intestine. The diagnosis is based on the observation of eggs in the stool. The eggs are 85–115 um, oval, elongated, and pointed at one or both ends.[3] Trichostrongylus eggs must be differentiated from hookworm eggs, which are smaller and do not have pointed ends.[1][3]

Prevention and treatment

Since the use of herbivore manure as fertilizer is a common practice preceding infection, thorough cleaning and cooking of vegetables is required for prevention of infection.[1][3] Treatment with pyrantel pamoate is recommended.[6] Alternative agents include mebendazole and albendazole.[6] Successful treatment with ivermectin has also been reported.[2]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Garcia LS, editor. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology. 5 ed. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 2007.
  2. ^ a b c d Ralph A, O'Sullivan M, Sangster N, Walker J. Abdominal pain and eosinophilia in suburban goat keepers - Trichostrongylosis. Med J Aust. 2006;184(9):467-9.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Strickland GT, editor. Hunter's Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company; 2000.
  4. ^ Adams VJ, Markus MB, Adams JF, Jordaan E, Curtis B, Dhansay MA, et al. Paradoxical helminthiasis and giardiasis in Cape Town, South Africa: epidemiology and control. Afr Health Sci. 2005 Sep;5(3):276-80.
  5. ^ el-Shazly AM, el-Nahas HA, Soliman M, Sultan DM, Abedl Tawab AH, Morsy TA. The reflection of control programs of parasitic diseases upon gastrointestinal helminthiasis in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2006 Aug;36(2):467-80.
  6. ^ a b Drugs for parasitic infections. The Med Lett. 2007;5(Suppl):1-15.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.