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Trypanosomatid

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Title: Trypanosomatid  
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Subject: Leishmania, Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Bodo (genus), Excavata, Trypanosoma suis
Collection: Albian First Appearances, Euglenozoa, Kinetoplastid, Parasitic Protists
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Trypanosomatid

Trypanosomes
Temporal range: Albian to Recent 100–0 Ma
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Trypanosoma cruzi parasites
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Excavata
Phylum: Euglenozoa
Subphylum: Mastigophora
Class: Kinetoplastea
Order: Trypanosomatida
Kent, 1880
Genera
This article is about the order Trypanosomatida, see also the genus Trypanosoma.

Trypanosomatids are a group of kinetoplastid protozoa distinguished by having only a single flagellum. The name is derived from the Greek trypano (borer) and soma (body) because of the corkscrew-like motion of some trypanosomatid species. All members are exclusively parasitic, found primarily in insects.[1] A few genera have life-cycles involving a secondary host, which may be a vertebrate, invertebrate or plant. These include several species that cause major diseases in humans.[2]

The three major human diseases caused by trypanosomatids are; African trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness, caused by Trypanosoma brucei and transmitted by Tsetse flies), South American trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by triatomine bugs), and leishmaniasis (a set of trypanosomal diseases caused by various species of Leishmania transmitted by sandflies).

The family is known from fossils of the extinct genus Paleoleishmania preserved in Burmese amber dating to the Albian (100 mya) and Dominican amber from the Burdigalian (20-15 mya) of Hispaniola.[3] The genus Trypanosoma is also represented in Dominican amber in the extinct species Trypanosoma antiquus.[4]

Contents

  • Life cycle 1
  • Morphologies 2
  • Other features 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Life cycle

Some trypanosomatids only occupy a single plants. Different species go through a range of different morphologies at different stages of the life cycle, most have at least two different morphologies. Typically the promastigote and epimastigote forms are found in insect hosts, trypomastigote forms in the mammalian bloodstream and amastigotes in intracellular environments.

Morphologies

The six main morphologies of trypanosomatids.

A variety of different morphological forms appear in the life cycles of trypanosomatids, distinguished mainly by the position, length and the cell body attachment of the flagellum. The kinetoplast is found closely associated with the basal body at the base of the flagellum and all species of trypanosomatid have a single nucleus. Most of these morphologies can be found as a life cycle stage in all trypanosomatid genera however certain morphologies are particularly common in a particular genus. The various morphologies were originally named from the genus where the morphology was commonly found, although this terminology is now rarely used because of potential confusion between morphologies and genus. Modern terminology is derived from the Greek; "mastig", meaning whip (referring to the flagellum), and a prefix which indicates the location of the flagellum on the cell. For example, the amastigote (prefix "a-", meaning no flagellum) form is also known as the leishmanial form as all Leishmania have an amastigote life cycle stage.

  • Amastigote (leishmanial).[5] Amastigotes are a common morphology during an intracellular lifecycle stage in a mammalian host. All Leishmania have an amastigote stage of the lifecycle. Leishmania amastigoes are particularly small and are among the smallest eukaryotic cells. The flagellum is very short, projecting only slightly beyond the flagellar pocket.
  • Promastigote (leptomonad).[5] The promastigote form is a common morphology in the insect host. The flagellum is found anterior of nucleus and flagellum not attached to the cell body. The kinetoplast is located in front of the nucleus, near the anterior end of the body.
  • Epimastigote (crithidial).[5] Epimastigotes are a common form in the insect host and Crithidia and Blastocrithidia, both parasites of insects, exhibit this form during their life cycles. The flagellum exits the cell anterior of nucleus and is connected to the cell body for part of its length by an undulating membrane. The kinetoplast is located between the nucleus and the anterior end.
  • Trypomastigote (trypanosomal).[5] This stage is characteristic of the genus Trypanosoma in the mammalian host bloodstream as well as infective metacyclic stages in the fly vector. In trypomastigotes the kinetoplast is near the posterior end of the body, and the flagellum lies attached to the cell body for most of its length by an undulating membrane.
  • Opisthomastigote (herpetomonad).[5] A rarer morphology where the flagellum posterior of nucleus, passing through a long groove in the cell.

Other features

Notable characteristics of trypanosomatids are the ability to perform

  • Trykipedia, Trypanosomatid specific ontologies
  • Tree of Life: Trypanosomatida

External links

  • Bütikofer P, Ruepp S, Boschung M, Roditi I; Ruepp; Boschung; Roditi (September 1997). strain 427"Trypanosoma brucei bruceiGPEET' procyclin is the major surface protein of procyclic culture forms of '". Biochem. J. 326 (Pt 2): 415–23.  
  • Dean S, Marchetti R, Kirk K, Matthews KR; Marchetti; Kirk; Matthews (May 2009). "A surface transporter family conveys the trypanosome differentiation signal". Nature 459 (7244): 213–7.  
  • Engstler M, Boshart M; Boshart (November 2004). "Trypanosoma brucei"Cold shock and regulation of surface protein trafficking convey sensitization to inducers of stage differentiation in . Genes Dev. 18 (22): 2798–811.  
  • Hofer A, Steverding D, Chabes A, Brun R, Thelander L; Steverding; Chabes; Brun; Thelander (May 2001). CTP synthetase: a target for the treatment of African sleeping sickness"Trypanosoma brucei". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (11): 6412–6.  
  • Janovy, J; Roberts, L.S. (2005). Foundations of Parasitology (7th ed.). New York NY: McGraw Hill. pp. 61–69. 
  • Legros D, Ollivier G, Gastellu-Etchegorry M; et al. (July 2002). "Treatment of human African trypanosomiasis--present situation and needs for research and development". Lancet Infect Dis 2 (7): 437–40.   Category:CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al.)
  • Matthews KR (January 2005). "Trypanosoma brucei"The developmental cell biology of . J. Cell. Sci. 118 (Pt 2): 283–90.  
  • Matthews KR, Gull K; Gull (June 1994). "Evidence for an interplay between cell cycle progression and the initiation of differentiation between life cycle forms of African trypanosomes". J. Cell Biol. 125 (5): 1147–56.  
  • Morrison LJ, Marcello L, McCulloch R; Marcello; McCulloch (December 2009). "Antigenic variation in the African trypanosome: molecular mechanisms and phenotypic complexity". Cell. Microbiol. 11 (12): 1724–34.  
  • Seed JR, Wenck MA; Wenck (June 2003). "Role of the long slender to short stumpy transition in the life cycle of the african trypanosomes". Kinetoplastid Biol Dis 2 (1): 3.  
  • Shadan S (May 2009). "Microbiology: Signals for change". Nature 459 (7244): 175.  
  • Sherwin T, Gull K; Gull (June 1989). : timing of event markers and cytoskeletal modulations"Trypanosoma brucei brucei"The cell division cycle of . Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 323 (1218): 573–88.  
  • "African trypanosomiasis". World Health Organization. August 2006. 
  1. ^ Podlipaev S (May 2001). "The more insect trypanosomatids under study-the more diverse Trypanosomatidae appears". Int. J. Parasitol. 31 (5–6): 648–52.  
  2. ^ Simpson AG, Stevens JR, Lukes J; Stevens; Lukes (April 2006). "The evolution and diversity of kinetoplastid flagellates". Trends Parasitol. 22 (4): 168–74.  
  3. ^ Poinar, G. (2008). sp. n. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in Dominican amber"Paleoleishmania neotropicum sp. n. (Diptera: Phlebotomidae), a vector of Lutzomyia adiketis". Parasites & Vectors 1 (1): 22.  
  4. ^ Poinar, G. (2005). "Triatoma dominicana sp. n. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), and Trypanosoma antiquus sp. n. (Stercoraria: Trypanosomatidae), the First Fossil Evidence of a Triatomine-Trypanosomatid Vector Association". Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 5 (1): 72–81.  
  5. ^ a b c d e Hoare, Cecil A.; Wallace, Franklin G. (1966). "Developmental Stages of Trypanosomatid Flagellates: a New Terminology". Nature 212 (5068): 1385–6.  
  6. ^ Docampo R, de Souza W, Miranda K, Rohloff P, Moreno SN; De Souza; Miranda; Rohloff; Moreno (March 2005). "Acidocalcisomes — conserved from bacteria to man". Nature Reviews Microbiology 3 (3): 251–61.  

References

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