World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Allethrins

Article Id: WHEBN0003003027
Reproduction Date:

Title: Allethrins  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Attractive toxic sugar baits, Benzoylurea, Empenthrin, Acrinathrin, Ethoprop
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Allethrins

Allethrin I (R = −CH3)
Allethrin II (R = −COOCH3)

The allethrins are a group of related synthetic compounds used in insecticides. They are synthetic pyrethroids, a synthetic form of a chemical found naturally in the chrysanthemum flower. They were first synthesized in the United States by Milton S. Schechter in 1949. Allethrin was the first pyrethroid.

The compounds have low toxicity for humans and birds, and are used in many household insecticides such as RAID as well as mosquito coils. It is highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates. At normal application rates, allethrin is slightly toxic to bees. [1] Insects subject to exposure become paralyzed (nervous system effect) before dying. Allethrins are toxic to cats[2] because they either do not produce, or produce less of certain isoforms of glucuronosyltransferase, which serve in hepatic detoxifying metabolism pathways.[3]

They are also used as an ultra-low volume spray for outdoor mosquito control.

Chemical structure

Allethrin I and allethrin II differ by having a methyl group and a methyl ester, respectively, on one terminus. Each of these allethrins consists of the eight possible stereoisomers. A partly enantiopure variant of allethrin I, consisting of only two stereoisomers in an approximate ratio of 1:1, is called bioallethrin. The same mixture of isomers, but in an approximate ratio of 3:1, is known as esbiothrin.

Notes

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^

References

  • Oregon State University (1996). Allethrin. Retrieved October 26, 2005.
  • Illinois Department of Public Health Pyrethroid Insecticides Fact Sheet. Retrieved October 26, 2005.
  • World Health Organization (WHO) d-Allethrin. Retrieved October 26, 2005.
  • Jim E. Riviere & Mark G. Papich Eds.: Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Iowa State University Press, 2009. ISBN 9780813820613. (p. 1194)

External links

  • Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids Fact Sheet - National Pesticide Information Center
  • Allethrin Pesticide Information Profile - Extension Toxicology Network
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.