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Autonomous okrugs of Russia

Autonomous okrug
Category Federated state
Location Russian Federation
Number 4
Populations 42,090 (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) – 1,532,243 (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug)
Areas 177,000 km2 (68,200 sq mi) (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) – 750,000 km2 (289,700 sq mi) (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug)
Government Okrug Government
Subdivisions administrative: districts, cities and towns of okrug significance, towns of district significance, urban-type settlements of district significance, selsoviets; municipal: urban okrugs, municipal districts, urban settlements, rural settlements

Autonomous okrug (Russian: автономный округ), occasionally also referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrative division type of some federal subjects. As of 2014, Russia comprises eighty-five federal subjects, of which four are autonomous okrugs.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Recent developments 2
  • Ethnic composition of autonomous okrugs 3
  • References 4
  • See also 5

History

Originally called national okrug, this type of administrative unit was created in the 1920s and widely implemented in 1930 to provide autonomy to indigenous peoples of the North. In 1977, the 1977 Soviet Constitution changed the term "national okrugs" to "autonomous okrugs" in order to emphasize that they were indeed autonomies and not simply another type of administrative and territorial division. While the 1977 Constitution stipulated that the autonomous okrugs are subordinated to the oblasts and krais, this clause was revised on December 15, 1990, when it was specified that autonomous okrugs are subordinated directly to the Russian SFSR, although they still may stay in jurisdiction of a krai or an oblast to which they were subordinated before.

Recent developments

In 1990, ten autonomous okrugs existed within the RSFSR. Between 2005 and 2008, the three autonomous okrugs in which the titular nationality constituted more than 30% of the population were abolished. Since then, three more have been abolished, leaving four.

The ten autonomous okrugs in 1990 were:

Entity in 1990 Status in August 2008
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug now Agin-Buryat Okrug of Zabaykalsky Krai
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug within Magadan Oblast no longer subordinated to Magadan Oblast
Evenk Autonomous Okrug within Krasnoyarsk Krai now Evenkiysky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai
Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug within Tyumen Oblast (no change)
Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug now Komi-Permyak Okrug of Perm Krai
Koryak Autonomous Okrug within Kamchatka Oblast now Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai
Nenets Autonomous Okrug within Arkhangelsk Oblast (no change)
Taymyr Autonomous Okrug within Krasnoyarsk Krai now Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug within Irkutsk Oblast now Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug of Irkutsk Oblast
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug within Tyumen Oblast (no change)

Ethnic composition of autonomous okrugs

The table below also includes autonomous okrugs which have since changed status.

Autonomous Okrug titular nation Russians other[1]
year 1979 1989 2002 2010 1979 1989 2002 2010 1979 1989 2002 2010
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug[2] 52,2 54,9 62,5 42 40,8 35,1
Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug[2] 61,6 60,2 59 34,9 36,1 38,1
Koryak Autonomous Okrug (all indigenous)[2] 16,3 16,45 26,6 30,3 62,9 62 50,5 46,2 24,9 40,5 46,5
Nenets Autonomous Okrug (komi) 12,8 11,9 18,6 18,6 66 65,8 62,4 66,1 11,1 9,5 10,8 9
Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (nenets)[2] 9,6 8,9 13,8 15,7 68,9 67,1 58,6 50,0 5 4,4 7,6 10,1
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug[2] 34,1 36,3 39,6 58,3 56,5 54,4
Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug 1,9 0,9 1,2 1,3 74,3 66,3 66 68,1 1,1 0,5 0,7 0,8
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (all indigenous) 8,1 7,3 23,4 26,7 68,6 66,1 51,8 52,5 9,6 30,8 35,3
Evenk Autonomous Okrug[2] 20 14,1 21,5 22,0 62,5 67,5 61,9 59,4
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (khants) 10,7 4,2 5,2 5,9 59,1 59,2 58,8 61,7 1,5 1,7 1,9

References

  1. ^ Are the people who are in parentheses next to the autonomous regions and the second-largest two-part indigenous autonomous regions.
  2. ^ a b c d e f liquidated Autonomous okrug.

See also


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