World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Bikkurim (Talmud)

Article Id: WHEBN0006052290
Reproduction Date:

Title: Bikkurim (Talmud)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Pe'ah, Hallah (Talmud), Horayot, Ma'aser Sheni, Orlah (Talmud)
Collection: Hebrew Words and Phrases
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Bikkurim (Talmud)

This page is about the book of Bikkurim. See First Fruits: Hebrew perspective for the offering.

Bikkurim (Hebrew: ביכורים‎, lit. "First-fruits") is the eleventh tractate of Seder Zeraim ("Order of Seeds") of the Mishnah and of the Talmud. All versions of the Mishnah contain the first three chapters, and some versions contain a fourth.

The three chapters found in all versions primarily discuss the commandment (found in Deuteronomy 26:1-11) to bring the Bikkurim (first fruits) to the Temple in Jerusalem and to make a declaration upon bringing it. As is common in the Mishnah, related matters are also discussed.

The first chapter discusses who has the responsibility to bring the first fruits and make the declaration, who needs to bring the first fruits but not make the declaration, and who can not bring the first fruits. Among those who bring the first fruits but don't make the declaration are converts, so other halakah regarding differences between the obligations of converts and those born Jewish are also discussed here. This difference for converts was disagreed with by Rabbi Judah bar Ilai and later Maimonides, and it is their position that has become the practice of the Jewish community.

In the second chapter, a comparison (as to legal classification) is made between the terumah, ma'aser (the second tithe, which had to be brought to Jerusalem and consumed there) and bikkurim, and makes other legal comparisons between citron, trees, and vegetables; between the blood of human beings and that of cattle and creeping things; and between beast, cattle, and "koy" (Hebrew: כּוֹי), an intermediate between cattle and beast.[1] The third chapter describes more fully the process of bringing the first fruits to the Temple at the festival of Shavuot.

The fourth chapter, which is only sometimes included, originates from the Tosefta Bikkurim. It compares the laws relating to men, women, and those of intermediate sex, including the tumtum (one with no genitalia) and the androgynos.

There is no Gemara in the Babylonian Talmud. The Jerusalem Talmud has Gemara on Bikkurim, in which the laws of the Mishnah are discussed in the usual way, with a few digressions, noteworthy among which is that on Leviticus 19:32 "You shall rise before a venerable person and you shall respect the elderly," and on the value of the title "zaken" (elder) conferred on scholars in the Land of Israel and outside the Land (Yerushalmi iii. 65c).[2][1]


  1. ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain
  2. ^ כיצד מפרישין פרק שלישי (in Hebrew/Aramaic)
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.