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Bungku–Tolaki languages

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Title: Bungku–Tolaki languages  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Languages of Indonesia, Celebic languages
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Bungku–Tolaki languages

Linguistic classification: Austronesian
  • Eastern
  • Western

The Bungku–Tolaki languages are a group of languages spoken primarily in South East Sulawesi province, Indonesia, and in neighboring parts of Central and South Sulawesi provinces.


Mead (1998:117) presents the following tree-model classification for Bungku–Tolaki. This classification is based on the historical-comparative method in linguistics.

  • Eastern
    • Moronene
    • East Coast: Bungku, Bahonsuai, Kulisusu (Koroni, Kulisusu, Taloki), Wawonii, Mori Bawah
  • Western
    • Interior: Mori Atas, Padoe, Tomadino
    • West Coast: Tolaki, Rahambuu, Kodeoha, Waru

This classification supersedes Mead (1999), an earlier classification proposed by Mead in 1994. Based on a lexicostatistical comparison, his earlier classification proposed 'Bungku,' 'Mori,' and 'Tolaki' as primary subdivisions under Bungku–Tolaki. In view of more recent evidence from shared sound change and innovations in pronoun sets, the unity of the proposed Mori group (comprising Bahonsuai, Mori Bawah, Mori Atas, Padoe and Tomadino) could not be maintained. Additional information can be found at Mori language.

Further reading

  • Mead, David. 1998. Proto–Bungku-Tolaki: Reconstruction of its phonology and aspects of its morphosyntax . PhD dissertation. Houston: Rice University.
  • Mead, David. 1999. The Bungku–Tolaki languages of south-eastern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Series D-91. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

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