World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Carl Froch

Carl Froch
Froch in 2009
Statistics
Real name Carl Martin Froch
Nickname(s) The Cobra
Rated at Super middleweight
Height 1.85 m (6 ft 1 in)
Reach 191 cm (75 in)
Nationality British
Born (1977-07-02) 2 July 1977
Nottingham, England
Stance Orthodox
Boxing record
Total fights 35
Wins 33
Wins by KO 24
Losses 2

Carl Martin Froch,[1] MBE (born 2 July 1977) is a British former professional boxer. He is a four-time super middleweight world champion, having won the WBC title twice, as well as the WBA and IBF titles once each. In his early professional career he held the British, Commonwealth and English titles at super middleweight. As an amateur he won a bronze medal in the middleweight division at the 2001 World Amateur Boxing Championships.

Froch was voted Fighter of the Year for 2012 by WBN (World Boxing News)[2] and BoxRec.[3] In 2013, the UK edition of GQ magazine voted him Sportsman of the Year. He reached a peak of number six pound for pound by both BoxRec and The Ring magazine,[4] and was listed by the BBC as the best British pound for pound boxer.[5] Froch's professional career spanned fourteen years until his retirement in 2015.[6] Known for his aggressive crowd-pleasing style, stamina and toughness, Froch is considered by many to have one of the hardest chins of his era.[7]

Contents

  • Personal life 1
  • Amateur career 2
  • Professional career 3
    • Froch vs Pascal 3.1
    • Froch vs Taylor 3.2
    • Super Six World Boxing Classic 3.3
      • Andre Dirrell 3.3.1
      • Mikkel Kessler 3.3.2
      • Arthur Abraham 3.3.3
      • Glen Johnson 3.3.4
      • Andre Ward 3.3.5
    • Bute vs Froch 3.4
    • IBF champion 3.5
    • Froch vs Kessler II 3.6
    • Froch vs Groves 3.7
    • Froch vs Groves II 3.8
  • Professional boxing record 4
  • Titles in boxing 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Personal life

Froch was born in Colwick, Nottingham, in 1977, the son of Carol (Douglas) and Frank Froch.[8] His paternal grandparents were Polish (his paternal grandfather also had German ancestry), while Carl's mother's family is English.[9][10] Early in his life Froch wanted to become a footballer and play for Nottingham Forest, his local football team, and has stated that he would love to fight at the City Ground. Froch is a fan of Johnny Cash. His partner is Rachael Cordingley, a British glamour model, with whom he has a son, Rocco, and a daughter, Natalia.[11]

He is a supporter of Nottingham Forest and occasionally trained at Forest's training ground before fights.[12][13] He has also appeared on the Sky Sports Saturday morning football show Soccer AM the week before a fight.[14][15]

Amateur career

Froch began boxing at the Phoenix ABC in Gedling, Nottingham. As an amateur, he won two ABA middleweight titles in 1999 and 2001 and a bronze medal at the 2001 World Amateur Boxing Championships before turning pro and having his first pro fight in March 2002. As an amateur, Froch lost to American Peter Manfredo Jr.[16]

Interestingly, he also boxed Jason Booth when a teenager on more than one occasion. Booth went on to fight as a professional at Flyweight to Super bantamweight.

Professional career

Froch is trained by Robert McCracken and managed by Eddie Hearn. In 2004, he won the vacant British and Commonwealth championships. He has defended both against Brian Magee, Tony Dodson, Matthew Barney and Damon Hague, and the Commonwealth belt alone against Ruben Groenewald and Dale Westerman.

Following a victory over the Russian Sergey Tatevosyan, on 9 November 2007 at Trent FM Arena in Nottingham, he stopped the veteran ex-world champion Robin Reid, after which Reid retired from the sport for four years.[17]

Froch vs Pascal

On 6 December 2008, Froch fought Canadian Jean Pascal for the vacant WBC super middleweight title and won after a hard-fought 12-round brawl.[18] Both combatants showed enormous grit and determination, landing and taking huge shots from one another without even flinching. After the fight, it was revealed that Froch had sustained a perforated eardrum and a cracked rib in his final sparring session before the fight. Froch's promoter Mick Hennessy gave Froch the opportunity to withdraw from the fight, but Froch refused.[19] Since the fight, Froch and Pascal (who has since become a light-heavyweight champion) have become friends on a personal level and have made a promise to face each other again in the future.

Froch vs Taylor

On 25 April 2009, Froch fought Jermain Taylor in his first defence of his WBC super middleweight title, at the Foxwoods Resort in Foxwoods, Connecticut. Froch survived a third-round knockdown – the first of his entire career, amateur and professional – and, behind on two of the three judges' cards coming into the final round, he managed to stop his opponent with 14 seconds remaining in the 12th round to retain his WBC super middleweight title.

After the fight, Froch was quick to send out a verbal challenge to unbeaten Welsh boxer Joe Calzaghe and was also quoted as saying "Kessler, Pavlik, Hopkins, I want them all to feel the force."[20][21]

Super Six World Boxing Classic

On 13 July 2009, Froch agreed to take part in the Super Six World Boxing Classic super middleweight tournament devised by American giant Showtime, with the winner of the tournament winning the WBC and WBA world super middleweight titles. The tournament featured 6 boxers including Andre Dirrell, Mikkel Kessler, Arthur Abraham, Jermain Taylor, Andre Ward and Froch. Froch's first opponent in the Super Six was Andre Dirrell.

Andre Dirrell

The bout took place in Nottingham on 17 October and Froch's WBC title was on the line. Froch won the fight and retained his title with a split decision victory over the previously undefeated Andre Dirrell.[22][23] Two of the judges scored the bout 115–112 in favour of Froch, with the other scoring the bout 114–113 in favour of Dirrell.[24]

Mikkel Kessler

Froch's next fight was against Mikkel Kessler, who lost the WBA super middleweight title to Andre Ward.[25] Froch's WBC title was again on the line. In a closely fought contest in Kessler's home country of Denmark where both men had great moments throughout the fight, Kessler took Froch's title and inflicted Froch's first professional defeat via unanimous decision, the judges scoring the contest by margins of 116–112, 115–113 and 117–111. The scoring was somewhat controversial, as some boxing announcers had scored the fight much closer, with some awarding Froch the win and others scoring it a draw.[26][27][28][29] Froch later stated that the fight was close and that he believes the decision would have gone his way if the event had been held in Nottingham.[30] The fight was a contender for the 2010 Fight of the Year.

Arthur Abraham

Froch faced former IBF middleweight champion Hard hitting King Arthur Abraham in the third stage in Helsinki Finland at the Hartwall Finland fearing that if he fought in Abraham's adoptive home country he might get mugged. However, since an eye injury forced Mikkel Kessler to relinquish his WBC title and resign from the tournament, Froch-Abraham was for the vacant WBC super middleweight title. Both Froch and Abraham came off of a loss in stage two of the Super Six. Abraham lost after a disqualification against former Froch victim Andre Dirrell.

Froch regained the WBC super middleweight title by gaining a unanimous points victory over Arthur Abraham in Helsinki. Froch won the fight against Abraham in a dominant manner, with the scores given by the judges of 119–109, 120–108 and 120–108, reflecting the one-sided nature of the bout.[31]

Glen Johnson

Following his victory over Abraham, Froch entered the semifinal stage of the tournament. His semifinal opponent on 4 June 2011 in Atlantic City, New Jersey was Glen Johnson. Froch retained his title with a majority decision victory, with the scores given by the judges of 116–112, 117–111, and 114–114.[32]

Andre Ward

Carl Froch lost in the final of the Super Six World Boxing Classic tournament in a dramatic bout against WBA super middleweight champion Andre Ward. The vacant The Ring super middleweight title would be on the line in the fight, as well as Froch and Ward's super middleweight titles. In the first 7 rounds, Ward outboxed Froch, successfully using his jab to neutralize Froch and beating Froch to the punch from a distance and at close range. In the later rounds, Ward seemed to take his foot off the gas, leaving Froch to win a couple of rounds near the end of the fight, though they were close and fairly competitive rounds. The judges scorecards were 115–113, 115–113 and 118–110, all in favor of Ward. Ward won the vacant The Ring super middleweight title.

Bute vs Froch

The IBF officially enforced Carl Froch as Lucian Bute's number one mandatory challenger. The fight, billed as "No Easy Way Out", took place on 26 May 2012 in Froch's hometown of Nottingham.[33] Despite being the underdog with bookmakers, critics and fans around the world, Froch dominated Bute throughout the fight to become the new IBF super middleweight champion via TKO in round five, making Froch a three-time world champion.[34][35]

IBF champion

After the Bute fight and acquiring IBF belt, Froch defeated Yusaf Mack via knockout. The British website BoxRec named Froch the "Fighter of the Year" in the end of 2012.[36]

Froch vs Kessler II

On 26 May 2013 (NB the match was scheduled for the 25th, but started after midnight BST), Froch beat Mikkel Kessler in a rematch of their fight in 2010 via a unanimous points decision at The O2 Arena in London, with the judges scoring the bout 118-110, 116-112 and 115-113.[37] [38] After the match, Froch hinted at a rematch against Andre Ward[39] in the UK, or a possible rubber match against Kessler.[40]

Froch vs Groves

The IBF installed George Groves as Froch's mandatory challenger, their bout taking place on Saturday 23 November at the Phones4u Arena in Manchester with Froch's IBF and WBA super middleweight titles on the line. Froch defended his titles with a TKO victory in Round 9, despite being floored by a right from Groves in the First. There was some controversy as many observers felt that referee Howard Foster stepped in to end the contest prematurely. The three scoring judges had scored Groves ahead of Froch before Groves was shaken by some powerful Froch blows in the 9th. The controversial ending prompted a widespread demand for a rematch to be fought between the two.[41][42]

On 24 January 2014, the IBF ordered a rematch between Froch and Groves, giving Froch 90 days to fight Groves or relinquish his IBF title.[43]

Froch vs Groves II

On 13 February 2014, it was announced by

Achievements
Vacant
Title last held by
Joe Calzaghe
WBC super middleweight champion
6 December 2008 – 24 April 2010
Succeeded by
Mikkel Kessler
Vacant
Title last held by
Mikkel Kessler
WBC super middleweight champion
27 November 2010 – 17 December 2011
Succeeded by
Andre Ward
Preceded by
Lucian Bute
IBF super middleweight champion
26 May 2012 – 3 February 2015
Vacated
Vacant
Title next held by
James DeGale
Preceded by
Mikkel Kessler
as Regular champion
WBA super middleweight champion
Unified Champion

26 May 2013 – 3 February 2015
Status changed
Vacant
Title last held by
Mikkel Kessler
WBA super middleweight champion
Regular title

3 February 2015 – 8 May 2015
Stripped
Vacant
Title next held by
Fedor Chudinov
  • Official website
  • Professional boxing record for Carl Froch from BoxRec

External links

  1. ^ "Carl Froch: heading towards Vegas, a spectacular career finale and The Hall of Fame!". Boxing News and Views. Retrieved 22 September 2014. 
  2. ^ Jay, Phil D (3 January 2013). "Carl Froch voted WBN fighter of the year 2012". worldboxingnews.net. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. 
  3. ^ Bax, Chris (27 December 2012). "Carl Froch and Juan Manuel Marquez win boxrec news awards". 
  4. ^ "Ring Ratings". The Ring. 2015-02-23. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  5. ^ BBC pound-for-pound British rankings. Bbc.co.uk (2013-01-14). Retrieved on 2013-03-01.
  6. ^ "Carl Froch retires: Former world champion ends boxing career". BBC Sport. 14 July 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015. 
  7. ^ http://www.boxingscene.com/forums/showthread.php?t=641896
  8. ^ Wilson, Jared (7 December 2008). "Carl Froch". Left Lion (Nottingham). Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  9. ^ "The Cobra Returns: Carl Froch speaks to East Side Boxing". Retrieved 22 September 2014. 
  10. ^ The Cobra. Retrieved 22 September 2014. 
  11. ^ "No pressure from 'stressed' Rachael Cordingley for Carl Froch to hang up gloves | Nottingham Post". nottinghampost.com. 25 November 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  12. ^ "Nottingham Forest FC News, Results, Fixtures & Photos | Nottingham Post". thisisnottinghamforest.co.uk. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  13. ^ "Froch gearing up for title shot". BBC News. 19 November 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2010. 
  14. ^ Froch vs Kessler: Warriors' Call | O2 Arena, London, 25 May 2013. Cobraboxing.com (2012-05-25). Retrieved on 2013-03-01.
  15. ^ Froch on Soccer AM | Boxing News. Saddoboxing.com (2007-11-01). Retrieved on 2013-03-01.
  16. ^ Froch vs Kessler: Warriors' Call | O2 Arena, London, 25 May 2013. Cobraboxing.com (2012-05-25). Retrieved on 2013-03-01.
  17. ^ Kirkbride, Philip (24 February 2011). "Robin Reid comes out of retirement after mum’s blessing". liverpoolecho.co.uk. Retrieved 18 November 2012. 
  18. ^ "Froch beats Pascal on points for super-middle belt". USA Today. 6 December 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2010. 
  19. ^ Davies, Gareth A (7 December 2008). "Carl Froch beat Jean Pascal to become world champion despite a perforated eardrum". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  20. ^ Dirs, Ben (26 April 2009). "Froch stuns Taylor with late show". BBC News. Retrieved 28 April 2010. 
  21. ^ "Britain's new champion Froch lines up Taylor for first defence". Daily Mail (London). 11 December 2008. 
  22. ^ Iorfida, Chris (2009-10-19) Chris Iorfida, CBC Sports. Cbc.ca. Retrieved on 2013-03-01.
  23. ^ Brookhouse, Brent. (2009-10-18) Brent Brookhouse, Bloody Elbow. Bloodyelbow.com. Retrieved on 2013-03-01.
  24. ^ Kevin Mitchell (18 October 2009). "Carl Froch holds off Andre Dirrell in WBC super-middleweight title defence". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 18 October 2009. .
  25. ^ [3]
  26. ^ Boxing News: Arthur Abraham vs Carl Froch Odds. OnlineSportsHandicapping.com (2010-09-27). Retrieved on 2013-03-01.
  27. ^ Carl Froch Getting Anxious To Get Ward in The Ring – Boxing News. Boxingscene.com (2011-11-17). Retrieved on 2013-03-01.
  28. ^ Iole, Kevin. (2011-12-13) Mailbag: Ranking the Super Six bouts – Boxing – Yahoo! Sports. Sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved on 2013-03-01.
  29. ^ Carl Froch is ready to end two year wait in Final showdown with Ward | Mail Online. Dailymail.co.uk (2011-11-16). Retrieved on 2013-03-01.
  30. ^ Vester, Mark (2010-04-24) Froch: If I Was Back Home, I Would Have Beaten Kessler – Boxing News. Boxingscene.com. Retrieved on 2013-03-01.
  31. ^ [4]
  32. ^ Christ, Scott. (2011-06-04) Carl Froch Gets Past Glen Johnson, Advances to Super Six Final. Bad Left Hook. Retrieved on 2013-03-01.
  33. ^ "IBF make Carl Froch the number one mandatory to Bute". LiveFight. 9 February 2012. 
  34. ^ Carl Froch destroys Lucian Bute to capture IBF world title | Sport | The Observer. Guardian (2012-05-27). Retrieved on 2013-03-01.
  35. ^ Froch unhappy with bookmakers having him the underdog against Bute. Eastsideboxing.com (2012-05-26). Retrieved on 2013-03-01.
  36. ^ McNeilly, Ian (26 December 2012). "Froch and Marquez head the BoxRec News Awards for 2012".  
  37. ^ Nakrani, Sachin (26 May 2013). "Carl Froch v Mikkel Kessler – as it happened". Guardian (London). Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  38. ^ Glicksman, Gavin. The Sun (London) http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/sport/boxing/4943085/Carl-Froch-sets-sights-on-Andre-Ward-showdown.html. 
  39. ^ Sheehan, Pat. The Sun http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/sport/boxing/4943541/Andre-Ward-tells-Carl-Froch-50m-London-superfight-fine-for-me.html. 
  40. ^ Powell, Jeff (26 May 2013). "Froch beats Kessler in thriller at the O2 Arena as Cobra avenges defeat to Dane with points victory in unification battle". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  41. ^ "Carl Froch retains world titles with controversial stoppage win over George Groves". Sky Sports. 
  42. ^ Powell, Jeff (23 November 2013). "Froch fiasco! Groves stunned as ref jumps in to ensure Carl holds on to world titles". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  43. ^ "BBC Sport - Carl Froch ordered to have George Groves rematch by IBF". BBC Sport. Retrieved 22 September 2014. 
  44. ^ "Carl Froch vs George Groves part II press conference: live". Daily Telegraph. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2014. 
  45. ^ "Carl Froch v George Groves – as it happened". Guardian. 1 June 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014. 
  46. ^ "Froch beats Groves with eighth round knockout in front of 80,000 at Wembley". Daily Mail. 1 June 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014. 

References

Regional/international titles:

Major world titles:

Titles in boxing

35 fights, 33 wins (24 KOs), 2 losses
Result Record Opponent Type Round,
Time
Date Location Notes
Win 33–2 George Groves TKO 8 (12),
2:28
2014-05-31 Wembley Stadium, Wembley, London Retained WBA/IBF super middleweight titles.
Win 32–2 George Groves TKO 9 (12),
1:33
2013-11-23 Phones4u Arena, Manchester, Greater Manchester Retained WBA/IBF super middleweight titles.
Win 31–2 Mikkel Kessler UD 12 2013-05-25 O2 Arena, Greenwich, London Retained IBF super middleweight title.
Won WBA super middleweight title.
Win 30–2 Yusaf Mack KO 3 (12),
2:30
2012-11-17 Capital FM Arena, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire Retained IBF super middleweight title.
Win 29–2 Lucian Bute TKO 5 (12),
1:05
2012-05-26 Capital FM Arena, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire Won IBF super middleweight title.
Loss 28–2 Andre Ward UD 12 2011-12-17 Boardwalk Hall, Atlantic City, New Jersey Lost WBC super middleweight title.
For WBA (Super)/The Ring super middleweight titles.
Win 28–1 Glen Johnson MD 12 2011-06-04 Boardwalk Hall, Atlantic City, New Jersey Retained WBC super middleweight title.
Win 27–1 Arthur Abraham UD 12 2010-11-27 Hartwall Arena, Helsinki Won vacant WBC super middleweight title.
Loss 26–1 Mikkel Kessler UD 12 2010-04-24 MCH Messecenter Herning, Herning Lost WBC super middleweight title.
Win 26–0 Andre Dirrell SD 12 2009-10-17 Trent FM Arena, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire Retained WBC super middleweight title.
Win 25–0 Jermain Taylor TKO 12 (12),
2:46
2009-04-25 Foxwoods Resort Casino, Mashantucket, Connecticut Retained WBC super middleweight title.
Win 24–0 Jean Pascal UD 12 2008-12-06 Trent FM Arena, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire Won vacant WBC super middleweight title.
Win 23–0 Albert Rybacki TKO 4 (12),
2:35
2008-05-10 Trent FM Arena, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire
Win 22–0 Robin Reid RTD 5 (12),
3:00
2007-11-09 Trent FM Arena, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire Retained British super middleweight title.
Win 21–0 Sergey Tatevosyan TKO 2 (12),
2:54
2007-03-23 Trent FM Arena, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire
Win 20–0 Tony Dodson KO 3 (12),
2:55
2006-11-24 Trent FM Arena, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire Retained British/Commonwealth super middleweight titles.
Win 19–0 Brian Magee KO 11 (12),
1:21
2006-05-26 York Hall, Bethnal Green, London Retained British/Commonwealth super middleweight titles.
Win 18–0 Dale Westerman TKO 9 (12),
1:45
2006-02-17 York Hall, Bethnal Green, London Retained Commonwealth super middleweight title.
Win 17–0 Ruben Groenewald TKO 5 (12),
2:25
2005-02-12 Trent FM Arena, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire Retained Commonwealth super middleweight title.
Win 16–0 Matthew Barney PTS 12 2005-07-09 Trent FM Arena, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire Retained British/Commonwealth super middleweight titles.
Win 15–0 Henry Porras TKO 8 (10),
0:56
2005-04-21 Avalon, Hollywood, California
Win 14–0 Damon Hague TKO 1 (12),
2:10
2004-09-24 Trent FM Arena, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire Retained Commonwealth, & won vacant British super middleweight title.
Win 13–0 Mark Woolnaugh TKO 11 (12),
1:47
2004-06-02 Trent FM Arena, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire Retained Commonwealth super middleweight title.
Win 12–0 Charles Adamu PTS 12 2004-03-12 Trent FM Arena, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire Won Commonwealth super middleweight title.
Win 11–0 Dmitry Adamovich TKO 2 (8),
1:07
2004-01-30 Goresbrook Leisure Centre, Dagenham, Essex
Win 10–0 Alan Page TKO 7 (10),
1:40
2003-11-28 Derby Storm Arena, Derby, Derbyshire Won vacant English super middleweight title.
Win 9–0 Vage Kocharyan PTS 8 2003-10-04 Alexandra Palace, Wood Green, London
Win 8–0 Michael Monaghan TKO 3 (8),
2:18
2003-04-16 Trent FM Arena, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire
Win 7–0 Varuzhan Davtyan TKO 5 (8),
1:44
2003-03-05 York Hall, Bethnal Green, London
Win 6–0 Valery Odin TKO 6 (8),
2:15
2003-01-28 Trent FM Arena, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire
Win 5–0 Mike Duffield TKO 1 (6),
1:14
2002-12-21 Goresbrook Leisure Centre, Dagenham, Essex
Win 4–0 Paul Bonson PTS 6 2002-10-25 York Hall, Bethnal Green, London
Win 3–0 Darren Covell TKO 1 (6),
2:03
2002-08-23 York Hall, Bethnal Green, London
Win 2–0 Ojay Abrahams KO 1 (6),
2:18
2002-05-10 York Hall, Bethnal Green, London
Win 1–0 Michael Pinnock TKO 4 (6),
2:03
2002-03-16 York Hall, Bethnal Green, London Professional debut.

Professional boxing record

The fight was a significantly more cagey affair than the first match, with both fighters initially looking to outbox each other. Froch was stronger in the earlier rounds, with Jim Watt unofficially scoring the earlier rounds in favour of the champion on his Sky Sports scorecard. By the end of the seventh round, both Richie Woodhall and Steve Bunce had the fight scored 4 rounds to 3 for Froch on the BBC scorecards. Groves came out fighting in the 8th round before Froch got him pinned against the ropes and delivered a stunning, sensational right hand which knocked Groves clean out.[45] The referee, Charlie Fitch, instantly called the fight, sensing Groves was clearly in no fit state to continue. BBC boxing commentator Mike Costello referred to it as "The best punch you will ever see in a British boxing ring".[46]

[44]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.