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Citation Style Language

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Title: Citation Style Language  
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Subject: Comparison of reference management software, Qiqqa, Reference, Library 2.0, Metadata
Collection: Library 2.0, Library Science, Metadata, Reference
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Citation Style Language

The Citation Style Language (CSL) is an open XML-based language to describe the formatting of citations and bibliographies. Reference management programs using CSL include Zotero, Mendeley and Papers.


  • History 1
  • Software Support 2
  • Styles 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5
    • Other XML-based bibliographic metadata systems 5.1


CSL was created by Bruce D'Arcus for use with

  • OSBIB, another approach to using XML style files for bibliographic metadata
  • BiblioX, Peter Flynn's 2004 experiment in creating an XML-based system for formatting bibliographic citations and references using XSLT

Other XML-based bibliographic metadata systems

  • Project home of the Citation Style Language
    • CSL 1.0.1 Specification
  • Zotero's CSL documentation
  • WYSIWYG CSL 1.0 style editor (in development, by Mendeley)

External links

  1. ^ CiteProc at OpenOffice Bibliographic Project.
  2. ^ OpenOffice Bibliographic Project.
  3. ^ Update instructions to convert CSL 0.8.1 styles to the 1.0 format.
  4. ^ Jakob Voß (May 2010), "Quick introduction to the Citation Style Language (CSL)", Lightning Talk proposal European Library Automation Group Conference.


The CSL project maintains a CSL 1.0 style repository at which contains over 6000 styles. These styles can be browsed and searched via the Zotero Style Repository.


  • Zotero, Mendeley, and Qiqqa provide a built-in CSL editor to help create and modify CSL styles.
  • CSL 1.0 processors have also been written in Haskell (citeproc-hs), PHP, Python, and Ruby.[4]

Software Support

On its release in 2006, Zotero became the first application to adopt CSL. In 2008 Mendeley was released with CSL support, and in 2011, Papers and Qiqqa gained support for CSL-based citation formatting.

The releases of CSL are 0.8 (March 21, 2009), 0.8.1 (February 1, 2010), 1.0 (March 22, 2010), and 1.0.1 (September 3, 2012). CSL 1.0 was a backward-incompatible release, but styles in the 0.8.1 format can be automatically updated to the CSL 1.0 format.[3]

developer Simon Kornblith. Since 2008, the core development team consists of D'Arcus, Frank Bennett and Rintze Zelle. Zotero" CSL processor. CSL was further developed in collaboration with CiteProc-based "XSLT and an [2][1]

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