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Constitutional Convention (Australia)

In Australian history, the term Constitutional Convention refers to four distinct gatherings.

Contents

  • 1891 convention 1
  • 1897–1898 convention 2
  • 1973 convention 3
  • 1998 convention 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7
  • External links 8

1891 convention

The 1891 Constitutional Convention was held in Sydney in March 1891 to consider a draft Constitution for the proposed federation of the British colonies in Australia and New Zealand. There were 46 delegates at the Convention, chosen by the seven colonial parliaments. Among the delegates was Sir Henry Parkes, known as the "Father of Federation". The Convention approved a draft largely written by Andrew Inglis Clark, but the colonial parliaments failed to act to ratify it.

1897–1898 convention

The next Constitutional Convention was held in stages in 1897–98. Unlike the first Convention, the delegates were elected by popular vote.[1] It met first in Adelaide in March 1897, secondly in Sydney in August, and thirdly in Melbourne in the sweltering heat of January 1898. The intervals between the sessions were used for intense debate in the colonial parliaments and for public discussion of the draft Constitution.

Since 1891 New Zealand had lost interest in federating with the Australian colonies, and was not represented. In Queensland, the parliament had not passed the necessary legislation, so the northern colony was also unrepresented. In the other five colonies ten delegates from each colony were elected by the people, although Western Australian attendance was sporadic. At Melbourne the Convention finally produced a draft Constitution which was eventually approved by the people at referendums in the colonies.

1973 convention

The 1973 Constitutional Convention was established by the Whitlam government in 1973 to consider possible amendments to the Constitution which could be put to the people for approval at a referendum. The Convention, which was not elected but consisted of delegates chosen by the federal and state Parliaments, met through 1973–75 but was mired in the partisan atmosphere of the Whitlam years and achieved nothing.

1998 convention

The 1998 Constitutional Convention met in Canberra in February 1998. The Convention was convened by Prime Minister John Howard to fulfill a promise made by his predecessor as Liberal leader, Alexander Downer. During the Convention, Prime Minister John Howard dedicated an area of parkland to the south-east of Old Parliament House as Constitution Place, Canberra.

The Convention consisted of 152 delegates, of whom half were elected by the people and half were appointed by the federal government. This latter group included senior federal, state and territory politicians appointed by virtue of their positions.

The Convention was divided into four philosophical groups: those wanting to retain Australia's existing constitutional monarchy, those wanting Australia to become a republic with a head of state chosen by the Parliament ("indirect electionists"), those wanting Australia to become a republic with a president elected by the people ("direct electionists"), and those having no fixed position or seeking a compromise between the other groups.[2] Republicans dominated both groups but proved far from united in their views.

At the opening of the Convention, Prime Minister John Howard stated:

73 delegates voted in favour of the Bi-partisan appointment model, 57 against and 22 abstained. Not one constitutional monarchist delegate voted in favour. The policy of ACM and other monarchist groups was to oppose all republican models, including the minimalist McGarvie model. Some conservatives argued this would be the easiest model to defeat in a referendum and therefore should be supported at the Convention. Had the monarchists followed this advice the McGarvie model would have prevailed at the Convention. In response, John Howard stated to the Convention:

A number of republicans who supported direct election abstained from the vote (such as Ted Mack, Phil Cleary, Clem Jones and Andrew Gunter), thereby allowing the bi-partisan model to succeed.[2] They reasoned that the model would be defeated at a referendum, and a second referendum called with direct election as the model.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ 1301.0 – Year Book Australia, 1909
  2. ^ a b Vizard, Steve, Two Weeks in Lilliput: Bear Baiting and Backbiting At the Constitutional Convention (Penguin, 1998, ISBN 0-14-027983-0)
  3. ^ a b "Constitutional Convention Hansard" (PDF).  
  4. ^  

Further reading

  • John A La Nauze, The Making of the Australian Constitution, Melbourne University Press 1972
  • Vizard, Steve, Two Weeks in Lilliput: Bear Baiting and Backbiting At the Constitutional Convention (Penguin, 1998, ISBN 0-14-027983-0)

External links

  • Proceedings of the 1998 Convention
  • The Australian Broadcasting Commission's 1998 Convention website
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