World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Crosshole sonic logging

Article Id: WHEBN0008970045
Reproduction Date:

Title: Crosshole sonic logging  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Geotechnical engineering, Deep foundation, Earthquake, Clay, Statnamic load test
Collection: Geotechnical Engineering
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Crosshole sonic logging

Crosshole sonic logging (CSL) is a method to verify the structural integrity of drilled shafts and other concrete piles.

The CSL method is considered to be more accurate than sonic echo testing in the determination of structural soundness of concrete within the drilled shaft inside of the rebar cage. This method provides little indication of concrete soundness outside the cage.

Also known as Crosshole Acoustical Testing, CSL normally requires steel (preferred) or PVC access tubes installed in the drilled shaft and tied to the rebar cage. Before the rebar cage is placed in the hole, the CSL access tubes are attached to the interior of the rebar cage. The cage is then lowered into the hole and the concrete is placed. Steel CSL tubes are preferred over PVC tubes because studies have shown that PVC tubes tend to debond from the concrete due to the heat of hydration process of concrete, resulting in erratic CSL test results.[1] [2]

The tubes are filled with water as an intermediate medium. After curing for 3-7 days, a sound source and receiver are lowered, maintaining a consistent elevation between source and sensor. A signal generator generates a sonic pulse from the emitter which is recorded by the sensor. Relative energy, waveform and differential time are recorded, and logged. This procedure is repeated at regular intervals throughout the pile and then mapped. By comparing the graphs from the various combinations of access tubes, a qualitative idea of the structural soundness of the concrete throughout the pile can be gleaned.

A more advanced, higher-end analysis that creates a mock 3-dimensional graphical display of the concrete soundness throughout the pile is known as Crosshole Sonic Tomography.


  1. ^ Hadjuk, Edward L.; Ledford, D.L.; Christopher, W.R. (2004). "PVC and Steel Access Tube Debonding during Sonic Logging Testing for the SC 170 Bridge Replacement Project". Proceedings of the Deep Foundation Institute 2004 Annual Conference, Vancouver, BC. 
  2. ^ Schmauder, M.S., Gretchen; Steve D. Bowman, Ph.D., P.E.; and Thomas J. Adams, M.S., P.E (2006). "CROSSHOLE SONIC LOGGING: INSIGHTS ON TESTING NEVADA INFRASTRUCTUR". 
  • Farouz, E., Landers, P., Webster, S., November, 2005. Case History: Foundation Evacuation for the Virginia Highway 288 Project. GEO3 Construction Quality Assurance/Quality Control Technical Conference: Dallas/Ft. Worth, TX; 49-60.
  • Beim, J.W., Debas, L.F., Kormann, A.C.M., Martinati, L.R., Neto, L.A., November, 2005. Tomography: A New Technology for Quality Control of Deep Foundations. GEO3 Construction Quality Assurance/Quality Control Technical Conference: Dallas/Ft. Worth, TX; 323-328.
  • ASTM D6760 - 08 Standard Test Method for Integrity Testing of Concrete Deep Foundations by Ultrasonic Crosshole Testing,  
  • ASTM D4428 / D4428M - 07 Standard Test Methods for Crosshole Seismic Testing,  

See also

  • FHWA Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 10
  • CSL paper from the 2003 symposium for Nondestructive Testing in Civil Engineering

External links

  • Sonitec CSL Access Tubes
  • ASTM D6760-02 Standard Test Method for Integrity Testing of Concrete Deep Foundations by Ultrasonic Crosshole Testing
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.