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D'mt

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D'mt

For the medieval kingdom located in Ethiopia, see Damot.
Dʿmt
ደዐመተ
c. 980 BC–c. 400 BC
Capital Yeha[1]
Government Monarchy
History
 -  Established c. 980 BC
 -  Disestablished c. 400 BC

Dʿmt (

Part of a series on the
History of Eritrea
Pre-colonial
Kingdom of Punt
Kingdom of Dəmot
Aksumite Empire
Kingdom of Midri Bahri
Eyalet-i Habeş
Khedivate of Egypt
Colonial
Italian Eritrea
Italian East Africa
World War II
British Eritrea
Post-colonial
Federation with Ethiopia
Ethiopian Annexation
Eritrean War of Independence
State of Eritrea
1990s in Eritrea
Eritrean–Ethiopian War
2000s in Eritrea
2010s in Eritrea
Eritrea portal

History

The capital of Dʿmt was in present day Yeha, Tigray, Ethiopia,[1]

The kingdom developed irrigation schemes, used plows, grew millet, and made iron tools and weapons.

Some modern historians like Stuart Munro-Hay, Rodolfo Fattovich, Ayele Bekerie, Cain Felder, and Ephraim Isaac consider this civilization to be indigenous, although Sabaean-influenced due to the latter's dominance of the Red Sea, while others like Joseph Michels, Henri de Contenson, Tekle-Tsadik Mekouria, and Stanley Burstein have viewed Dʿmt as the result of a mixture of Sabaeans and indigenous peoples.[5][6] The most recent research, however, shows that Ge'ez, the ancient Semitic language spoken in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia in ancient times, is not derived from Sabaean.[7] There is evidence of a Semitic-speaking presence in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia at least as early as 2000 BC.[6][8] It is now believed that Sabaean influence was minor, limited to a few localities, and disappeared after a few decades or a century, perhaps representing a trading or military colony in some sort of symbiosis or military alliance with the civilization of Dʿmt or some other proto-Aksumite state.[9][10]

After the fall of Dʿmt in the 5th century BC, the plateau came to be dominated by smaller unknown successor kingdoms. This lasted until the rise of one of these polities during the first century BC, the Aksumite Kingdom. The ancestor of medieval and modern Eritrea and Ethiopia, Aksum was able to reunite the area.[11]

Name

Due to the similarity of the name of Dʿmt and Damot when transcribed into Latin characters, these two kingdoms are often confused or conflated with one another, but there is no evidence of any relationship to Damot, a kingdom far to the south. Daʿamat دعمت in Arabic translates as 'supported' or 'columned', and may refer to the columns and obelisks (or Hawulti) of Matara or Qohaito.

Known rulers

The following is a list of four known rulers of Dʿmt, in chronological order:[6]

Term Name Queen Notes
Dates from ca. 700 BC to ca. 650 BC
Mlkn Wʿrn Ḥywt ʿArky(t)n contemporary of the Sabaean mukarrib Karib'il Watar.
Mkrb, Mlkn Rdʿm Smʿt
Mkrb, Mlkn Ṣrʿn Rbḥ Yrʿt Son of Wʿrn Ḥywt, "King Ṣrʿn of the tribe YGʿḎ [=Agʿazi, cognate to Ge'ez], mkrb of DʿMT and SB'"
Mkrb, Mlkn Ṣrʿn Lmn ʿAdt Son of Rbḥ, contemporary of the Sabaean mukarrib Sumuhu'alay, "King Ṣrʿn of the tribe YGʿḎ, mkrb of DʿMT and SB'"

See also

References

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