World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Dip pen

Article Id: WHEBN0000238972
Reproduction Date:

Title: Dip pen  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Redirects for discussion/Log/2006 September 13, Fountain pen, Quill, Pen, List of pen types, brands and companies
Collection: Art Materials, Pens, Writing Implements
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Dip pen

Various models of dip pens.

A dip pen or nib pen usually consists of a metal nib with capillary channels like those of fountain pen nibs, mounted on a handle or holder, often made of wood. Other materials can be used for the holder, including bone, metal and plastic, while some pens are made entirely of glass. Generally speaking, dip pens have no ink reservoir; therefore the user has to recharge the ink from an ink bowl or bottle in order to continue drawing or writing. However, there are simple, tiny tubular reservoirs that illustrators sometimes clip onto dip pens; these allow drawing for several minutes without recharging the nib. Recharging can be done by dipping into an inkwell; however, some illustrators and cartoonists, who are the main current users of such pens, are more likely to charge the pen with an eyedropper, a syringe, or a brush, which gives them more control over the amount of ink applied. Thus, "dip pens" are not necessarily dipped. Many illustrators call them "nib pens."

Dip pens emerged in the early 19th century, when they replaced quill pens, or in some parts of the world reed pens. They were generally used prior to the development of fountain pens in the later 19th century, and are now mainly used in illustration, calligraphy, and comics.

The dip pen has certain advantages over a fountain pen. It can use waterproof, pigmented, particle-and-binder-based, inks, such as so-called "India ink", drawing ink, or acrylic inks, which would destroy a fountain pen by clogging it up, as well as the traditional iron gall ink, which can cause corrosion in fountain pens. They are also more sensitive to variations of pressure and speed, producing a line that naturally varies in thickness. They can also produce a finer line than any fountain pen.

There is also a wide range of readily exchangeable nibs available so different types of lines and effects can be created. The nibs and handles are far cheaper than most fountain pens, and allow color changes much more easily.


  • History 1
  • Pen makers 2
  • Uses 3
    • Gallery 3.1
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, and Princess Alexandra at Gillott's Victoria Works, 1874.
1890 advertisement by Perry & Co.

The steel pen is first attested in Daniel Defoe's book "A Tour Through the Whole Island of Great Britain - 1724-26". In Letter VII Defoe wrote: "the plaster of the ceilings and walls in some rooms is so fine, so firm, so entire, that they break it off in large flakes, and it will bear writing on it with a pencil or steel pen." In Newhall Street, John Mitchell pioneered mass production of steel pens in 1822; prior to that the quill pen had been the most common form of writing instrument. His brother William Mitchell later set up his own pen making business in St Paul's square. The Mitchell family is credited as being the first manufacturers to use machines to cut pen nibs, which greatly sped up the process.

The Jewellery Quarter and surrounding area of Birmingham, England was home to many of the first dip pen manufacturers, which some companies establishing there to produce pens. Some of those companies were Joseph Gillott's (established in 1827), Sir Josiah Mason (1827), Hink Wells & Co. (1836), Baker and Finnemore (1850), C. Brandauer & Co. (1850), D. Leonardt & Co. (1856).[1]

Baker and Finnemore operated in James Street, near Newhall Street. By 1830 John and William Mitchell, Joseph Gillott, and Josiah Mason were the major manufacturers in Birmingham.

Pen Nº 1163 by George W. Hughes, one of the most notable English pen manufacturers.

In Germany the industrial production of dip pens started in 1842 at the factory of Heintze & Blanckertz in Berlin.

By the 1850s, Birmingham existed as a world centre for steel pen and steel nib manufacture. More than half the steel nib pens manufactured in the world were Birmingham-made. Thousands of skilled craftsmen and women were employed in the industry. Many new manufacturing techniques were perfected in Birmingham, enabling the city's factories to mass-produce their pens cheaply and efficiently. These were sold worldwide to many who previously could not afford to write, which encouraged the development of education and literacy. By 1860 there were about 100 companies making steel nibs in Birmingham, but 12 large firms dominated the trade. In 1870 Mason, Sommerville, Wiley, and Perry, merged to form Perry & Co. Ltd. which later became one of the largest manufacturers in the world, with near 2,000 employees.[2]

Advertising for pen nibs by Hungarian Joseph Schuler, 1910.

Richard Esterbrook manufactured quill pens in Cornwall. In the 19th century, he saw a gap in the American market for steel nib pens. Esterbrook approached five craftsmen who worked for John Mitchell in Navigation Street with a view to setting up business in Camden, New Jersey, USA. Esterbrook founded his company in 1858, and it grew to become one of the largest steel pen manufacturers in the world. In 1971 it went out of business.

The oblique dip pen was designed for writing the pointed pen styles of the mid 19th to the early 20th century such as Spencerian Script, although oblique pen holders can be used for earlier styles of pointed penmanship such as the copperplate scripts of the 18th and 19th centuries. As the name suggests, the nib holder holds the nib at an oblique angle of around 55° pointing to the right hand side of the penman. This feature helps greatly in achieving the steep angle required for writing certain scripts, but more importantly, it prevents the right hand nib tine from dragging on the paper as can be experienced when using a straight nib holder with a straight nib for this purpose.

The decreasing production of dip pens and the subsequent demise of the industry in Birmingham is often blamed on the invention of the ballpoint pen in 1938 by the Hungarian Laszlo Biro.[3][4]

One improved version of the dip pen, known as the original "ballpoint", was the addition of a curved point (instead of a sharp point) which allows the user to have slightly more control on upward and sideways strokes. This feature, however, produces a thicker line rather than the razor-sharp line produced by a sharp point.

Pen makers

Some of the more prominent dip pen manufacturers (in past and present time) are:[1]

Country Manufacturers (Brands)
Austria Carl Kuhn, Salcher, Hiro
Czechoslovakia Massag
England C. Brandauer & Co., Joseph Gillott's, Baker & Finnemore, Ormiston and Glass, Perry & Co., Josiah Mason, Hinks Wells & Co., Geo W. Hughes, John Mitchell, William Mitchell, J. Cooke & Sons, M. Myers & Son, D. Leonardt & Co.
France Baignol et Farjon, Blanzy-Poure, Cie. Francaise, Plumes Parisiennes, J.B. Mallat
Germany Brause, F. Soennecken, Heintze & Blanckertz, Herm. Müller, Leo's, Pelikan
Japan Nikko, Tachikawa, Zebra
Spain A. Fabre, Boira, Cervantinas, Campoamor, Daimar, Goya, Imsa, Jaer, Verabil
Scotland MacNiven & Cameron
United States Esterbrook, C. Howard Hunt, Turner & Harrison, Speedball, Eagle Pencil Co., Leroy W. Fairchild, Aikin Lambert
South Korea Whashin


Dip pens are rarely used now for regular writing, most commonly having been replaced by fountain pens, rollerball pens, or ballpoint pens. However, dip pens are still appreciated by artists, as they can make great differences between thick and thin lines, and generally write more smoothly than other types of pens. Dip pens are also preferred by calligraphers for fine writing.

Although most of the factories ceased manufacturing dip pens,[1] some companies are still active, such as Speedball, Brause (currently owned by American company Exaclair, Inc.),[5][6] D. Leonardt & Co., William Mitchell and Joseph Gillott's.


See also


  1. ^ a b c More about the pen trade at the Wayback Machine (archived March 13, 2012)
  2. ^ "Perry and Co". 
  3. ^ "Pen makers: William Mitchell and Joseph Gillott", Birmingham Mail, 3 Nov 2014
  4. ^ "A Brief History of Writing Instruments, Part 3: The Battle of the Ballpoint Pens" by Mary Bellis on
  5. ^ "Brause brand". Retrieved 7 July 2015. 
  6. ^ "Brause". 

External links

  • Kallipos, Calligraphy German website
  • Manuscript Pen Company
  • Scribblers, calligraphy website
  • Blam! Design, calligraphy and vintage pens
  • The Pen Museum at Birmingham Heritage forum
  • Birmingham Pen Room, writing and pen museum (Archive)
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.