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Title: Dired  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: GNU Emacs, File manager, Emacs, XEmacs, Apel (emacs)
Collection: Emacs Modes, Free File Managers, Unix File System-Related Software
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Some Dired buffers as implemented in Emacs, with some custom colors.
Developer(s) Stan Kugell (original), Richard Stallman (for Emacs)
Stable release 7.17 / July 30, 2009 (2009-07-30)
Operating system Unix-like
Type File manager
License GPL (Free Software)
Website Mike Sperber's dired page

Dired is a visual directory editor, a computer program for editing file system directories. Dired runs on any Emacs platform. Its commands are generally more modal than most Emacs commands because Dired is a specialized major mode on its own. Dired can perform all expected operations; in operation and use it is akin to an orthodox file manager like Midnight Commander.

Dired was the first visual editor of file system information, or File Manager.[1][2] Later examples include the Windows File Explorer (formerly Windows Explorer) and the Apple Macintosh Finder.

Dired was invented circa 1974 at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (SAIL) as a stand-alone program by Stan Kugell.[1] It was quickly incorporated into Emacs, re-implemented in other operating systems, and became the basis for modern window-oriented file directory displays.

Several Emacs Lisp scripts have been developed to extend Dired functionalities in Emacs. In combination with Tramp[3] it is able to access remote file systems for editing files by means of SSH, FTP, telnet and many other protocols, as well as the capability of accessing as another user for editing files with restricted permissions (such as administrator access) in the same session. There are also functionalities that make it possible to rename multiple files via search and replace[4] or apply regular expressions for marking (selecting) multiple files.[5]


  1. ^ a b Kugell, Stanley G. (1974). "SAILDART/1978-08".  
  2. ^ SAILDART Username key for above
  3. ^ "Tramp User Manual".  
  4. ^ "WDired". 
  5. ^ "Dired Marks vs. Flags". 

External links

  • Dired manual at
  • Entry at the Emacs wiki; focuses mostly on the many scripts and tweaks that can modify the default Dired.

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