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Dmanisi castle ruins with Dmanisi Sioni and archeological site in background

Dmanisi (Tbilisi in the river valley of Mashavera. The hominin site is the earliest of its kind outside of Africa, dating back to 1.81 Ma.[1][2]


  • Dmanisi archaeological site
  • Kalmakoff, Jonathan J. Doukhobor Genealogy Website
  • Foley, Jim (13 January 2009). "Skull D2700".  
  • Connor, Steve (9 September 2009). "A skull that rewrites the history of man".  

External links

  1. ^ Garcia, T., Féraud, G., Falguères, C., de Lumley, H., Perrenoud, C., & Lordkipanidze, D. (2010). “Earliest human remains in Eurasia: New 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Dmanisi hominid-bearing levels, Georgia”. Quaternary Geochronology, 5(4), 443–451. doi:10.1016/j.quageo.2009.09.012
  2. ^ Gabunia, Leo; Vekua, Abesalom; Lordkipanidze, David et al. "Earliest Pleistocene Hominid Cranial Remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: Taxonomy, Geological Setting, and Age". Science 12 May 2000: Vol. 288 no. 5468 pp. 1019–1025. DOI: 10.1126/science.288.5468.1019.
  3. ^ New Fossil May Trim Branches of Human Evolution, Science Friday, Oct 18, 2013.
  4. ^ (Zatiashvili, 2008)
  5. ^ Skull suggests three early human species were one : Nature News & Comment


See also

The Dmanisi hominin remains are still making an impact on the paleontological community. As of 2014 the Dmanisi skull 5 is in the middle of an controversy: many hominin fossils formerly thought to be different species may not have been separate species at all. Several early members of the genus Homo were possibly one evolving lineage.[5]

Human habitation in the Caucasus goes back to the remotest antiquity. The hominin remains discovered in 1991 by David Lordkipanidze at Dmanisi, Kvemo Kartli (1.8 million years old) are the oldest found outside of Africa.[4] Neanderthal remains have been found at Ortvale K’lde (1973) and elsewhere in the Caucasus (36,000–50,000 years old).

Subsequently, four fossil skeletons were found, showing a species primitive in its skull and upper body but with relatively advanced spines and lower limbs. They are now thought to represent a stage soon after the transition from Australopithecus to Homo erectus.

Early human (or Homo erectus and not a separate species of Homo. These fossils represent the earliest known human presence in the Caucasus.

Homo erectus georgicus

The discovery of primitive stone tools in 1984 led to increasing interest to the archaeological site. In 1991, a team of Georgian scholars was joined by the German archaeologists from Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, and later the U.S., French and Spanish researchers.

Extensive archaeological studies began in the area in 1936 and continued in the 1960s. Beyond a rich collection of ancient and medieval artifacts and the ruins of various buildings and structures, unique remains of prehistoric animals and humans have been unearthed. Some of the animal bones were identified by the Georgian paleontologist A. Vekua with the teeth of the extinct rhino Dicerorhinus etruscus etruscus in 1983. This species dates back presumably to the early Pleistocene epoch.

Archaeological site

The town of Dmanisi is first mentioned in the 9th century as a possession of the Turkomans in 1486, Dmanisi never recovered and declined to a scarcely inhabited village by the 18th century. The castle was controlled by the House of Orbeliani.



  • History 1
  • Archaeological site 2
    • Homo erectus georgicus 2.1
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

is the fifth skull to be discovered in Dmanisi. Dmanisi human skull Also known as Skull 5, the [3]

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