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Ecotoxicology

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Title: Ecotoxicology  
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Subject: Toxicology, Environmental toxicology, Ecotoxicity, Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Chronic toxicity
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Ecotoxicology

Ecotoxicology is the study of the effects of population, community, ecosystem level. Ecotoxicology is a multidisciplinary field, which integrates toxicology and ecology.

The ultimate goal of this approach is to be able to predict the effects of pollution so that the most efficient and effective action to prevent or remediate any detrimental effect can be identified. In those ecosystems that hiare already impacted by pollution ecotoxicological studies can inform as to the best course of action to restore ecosystem services and functions efficiently and effectively.

Ecotoxicology differs from

  • European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals
  • ecotoxmodels website on ecotoxicology & models
  • Online biomonitoring of water quality by a 24/7 record of various bivalve molluscs' behavior and physiology worldwide (biological rhythms, growth rate, spawning, daily behavior): the eyeMolluSCAN project

External links

  • Connell, Des et al. (1999). Introduction to Ecotoxicology. Blackwell Science.  
  • Catherine A. Harris, Alexander P. Scott, Andrew C. Johnson, Grace H. Panter, Dave Sheahan, Mike Roberts, John P. Sumpter (2014): Principles of Sound Ecotoxicology. Environ. Sci. Technol., Article ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/es4047507

Further reading

  • Altenburger, Rolf (2011). "Chapter 1. Understanding combined effects for metal co-exposure in ecotoxicology". Metal ions in toxicology: effects, interactions, interdependencies. pp. 1–26.  
  • Agency, United States Environmental Protection. "Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention." 5 October 2011. U.S Environmental Protection Agency. 9 December 2011.
  • An J, Zhou Q, Sun Y, Xu Z. "Ecotoxicological effects of typical personal care products on seed germination and seedling development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)." Chemosphere (2009): p1428-1434.
  • Bazerman, Charles and René Agustin De los Santos. "Measuring Incommensurability: Are toxicology and ecotoxicology blind to what the other sees?" 9 January 2006.
  • Chapman P. M. (2002). "Integrating toxicology and ecology: putting the "eco" into ecotoxicology". Marine Pollution Bulletin 44 (1): 7–15.  
  • Clements, William and Jason Rohr. "Community Responses to Contaminants: Using Basic Ecological Principles to Predict Ecotoxicological Events." Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (2009): p1789-1800.
  • Erkan Kalipci*, Celalettin Özdemir, Fulya Öztas and Serkan Sahinkaya. "Ecotoxicological effects of Methyl parathion on living." African Journal of Agricultural Research (2010): p712-718.
  • Fritsch C, Cœurdassier M, Giraudoux P, Raoul F, Douay F, Rieffel D, de Vaufleury A, Scheifler R (2011). "Spatially explicit analysis of metal transfer to biota: influence of soil contamination and landscape;". PLoS One. 6 (5): e20682.  
  • Harley et al. (2006). The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems. Ecology Letters Vol. 9 Issue 2, Pages 228 - 241
  • The Humane Society of the United States. (2011). Ecotoxicity. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from Procter & Gamble website: http://alttox.org/ttrc/toxicity-tests/ecotoxicity/
  • Maltby L., Naylor C. (1990). Preliminary Observations on the Ecological Relevance of the Gammarus `Scope for Growth' Assay: Effect of Zinc on Reproduction - Functional Ecology, Vol. 4, No. 3, New Horizons in Ecotoxicology (1990), pp. 393–397
  • Mercola, J. (2007). 10 most common environmental toxins. Retrieved December 6, 2011, from Encognitive.com website: http://www.encognitive.com/node/1670
  • Newman, M. C., & Clements, W. H. (2008). Ecotoxicology: a Comprehensive Treatment. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id= y11sdkzQLKkC&pg=PA355&lpg=PA355&dq=ecotoxicology+affecting+population&source=bl&ots=WADQOnWEKb&sig=wkhTGGgdYOL4O1mYRg8gAT9iRU&hl=en&ei=snDeTvnbI-L20gGisPC0Bw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=ecotoxicology%20affecting%20population&f=false19.2.5
  • Newman, M. C., & Jagoe, C. H. (1996). Ecotoxicology: a Hierarchical Treatment. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=I1i9SvR4wcMC&oi=fnd&pg=PA197&dq=ecotoxicology+affecting+population&ots=H6rxvWZ9BI&sig=hNJszO7dKkXyL1uf28xF9_VUPJw#v=onepage&q&f=false
  • Oregon State University. (2011, March). Ecotoxicology topic fact sheet. Retrieved December 6, 2011, from National Pesticide Information Center website: http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/ecotox.pdf
  • Relyea R., Hoverman J. (2006). "Assessing the ecology in ecotoxicology: a review and synthesis in freshwater systems". Ecology Letters 9: 1157–1171.  
  • Truhaut R (1977). "Eco-Toxicology - Objectives, Principles and Perspectives". Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 1 (2): 151–173.  
  • Van Straalen N (2003). "Ecotoxicology becomes Stress Ecology". Environmental Science & Technology 37: 324A–329A.  

Bibliography

  1. ^ Maltby & Naylor, 1990:
  2. ^ Bazerman et al., 2006:
  3. ^ Truhaut, 1977:
  4. ^ Harley et al., 2006:
  5. ^ Erkan Kalipci
  6. ^ Mercola J.2007
  7. ^ Oregon State University 2011, March
  8. ^ Relyea, R. and Hoverman, J. (2006),
  9. ^ Tran, D. et al. (2010) Aquaculture 298: 338-345
  10. ^ Newman, M. C., & Jagoe, C. H.1996
  11. ^ Newman, M. C., & Clements, W. H.2008
  12. ^ Oregon State University.2011, March
  13. ^ Clements, William and Jason Rohr
  14. ^ An J, Zhou Q, Sun Y, Xu Z
  15. ^ Agency, United States Environmental Protection
  16. ^ The Humane Society of the United States. 2011
  17. ^ The Humane Society of the United States. (2011)

Notes

References

See also

10-100 parts per million→ Class III [17]

1-10 parts per million→ Class II

< 1 part per million→ Class I

Total amount of acute toxicity is directly related to the classification of toxicity.

Classification of ecotoxicity

  • Acute and chronic toxicity tests are performed for terrestrial organisms including avian, mammalian, nontarget arthropods, and earthworms.
  • The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline has developed specific tests to test toxicity level in organisms. Ecotoxicological studies are generally performed in compliance with international guidelines, including EPA, OECD, EPPO, OPPTTS, SETAC, IOBC, and JMAFF.
  • LC50 is the acute toxicity test that tests for the concentrate of tissue at which it is lethal to 50% within 96 hours. The test may start with eggs, embryos, or juveniles and last from 7 to 200 days.
  • EC50 is the effective concentration at 50%, which is the concentration that causes adverse effects in 50% of the test organisms.
  • Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP)
  • Tier 1 screening battery
  • Endangered species assessments.
  • Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Inherently Toxic (PBiT) assessments using the Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) to categorize regulated substances.
  • Bioaccumulation in fish using the Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) methods.[16]

Ecotoxicity testing

- Proper waste disposal

- There are many federal and state laws protecting birds, animals, and rare plants. But the first order of protection comes from us taking steps to avoid harm since we are the main source of all the toxins.

-Keep close track of the labeling when using a fertilizer, or pesticide. Try to look for products that will have less of an impact on the environment [15]

-Food Quality Protection Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act were passed in 1996, which required EPA to screen pesticide chemical for potential to produce harmful effects.

- In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reviews all pesticides before the products are registered for sale to ensure that the benefits will outweigh the risks.

Regulation:

Ways of prevention

Chemicals are shown to prohibit the growth of seed germination of an arrangement of different plant species. Plants are what make up the most vital trophic level of the biomass pyramids, known as the primary producers. Because they are at the bottom of the pyramid, every other organism in an ecosystem relies on the health and abundance of the primary producers in order to survive. If plants are battling problems with diseases relating to exposure to chemicals, other organisms will either die because of starvation or obtain the disease by eating the plants or animals already infected. So ecotoxicology is an ongoing battle that stems from many sources and can affect everything and everyone in an ecosystem [14]

Overall effects

- Community ecotoxicology studies the effects of all contaminants on patterns and species abundance, diversity, community composition, and species interactions. Communities that rely heavily on competition and predation will have a difficult time responding and thriving in disturbances from contaminants. A community that is species-rich will have a better chance recovering from an exotoxin disturbance, rather than a community that is not species-rich. A species could be easily wiped out to the expense of a contamination from foreign chemicals. Protecting distinct community levels, such as species richness and diversity is essential for maintaining a healthy, well-balanced ecosystem [13]

- Predator-prey relationships- either the predator is affected by the toxin resulting in a decline of predator population and thus increasing the prey population; or the prey population is affected by the toxin resulting in a decline in the prey population that, in essence, will cause a decline in the predator population due to lack of food resources [12]

Effects of ecotoxicity on a community

- Contaminants can modify the distribution of individuals in a population, effective population size, mutation rate and migration rate [11]

- The genetics can be affected by toxicant exposure, direct changes can occur to the DNA, and if not repaired, the changes can lead to the appearance mutations [10]

- With chronic use of pesticides, this runs the risk of causing abnormalities in chromosome structure in humans, as well as affecting the reproduction, nervous and cardiovascular system of any animals exposed.

- Sub-lethal effects- toxins that do not kill but make the organism sick or make it change its behavior;[8][9]

- Indirect effects- organisms directly affected by the loss of food, which has declined due to toxins.

- Developmental and reproductive problems

- Direct effects- direct consumption of a toxin or something that has been contaminated with a toxin by breathing, eating, or drinking.

Effects on individuals and entire population

- Animals and humans can also eat other animals or plants that are already poisoned, which will continue the spread of chemicals, which is referred to as secondary poisoning [7]

- We are all connected between the communities of living things. Plants can absorb toxins through their roots and leaves. Animals and humans are always exposed to chemicals by the air we breathe, things we touch, and what we put in our mouth.

- Animals can go to the brink of extinction because of the food chain that exists through the different communities. For example, bald eagles, ospreys, and peregrine falcons were facing extinction because their food sources(fish and other birds) were contaminated with toxins.

- Chemicals propose the risk of killing off another animal's food supply that change the overall population of the prey

Exposure to toxic chemicals

10. Chlorine is commonly found in household cleaners. [6]

9. Chloroform is used to make other chemicals.

8. Heavy metals include arsenic, mercury, lead, aluminum, and cadmium, which are found in fish, vaccines, and pesticides.

7. Asbestos is found in the insulation of flows, ceilings, water pipes, and heating ducts.

6. Dioxins are a class of chemical compounds that are formed as a result of combustion processes such as waste incineration and from burning fuels like wood, coal, and oil.

5. VOCs (formaldehyde; can be found in drinking water and sewage systems.

4. Phthalates are found in plastic wrap, plastic bottles, and plastic food storage containers.

3. Mold and other mycotoxins.

[5] 2.

1. PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) - found in coolant and insulating fluids, pesticide extenders, adhesives, and hydraulic fluids.

Common environmental toxicants

Although initially devoted to the study of anthropogenic toxicants, the term is now used to describe research into the ecological effects of diverse abiotic and biotic stresses, thereby integrating secondary effects of anthropogenic activities such as ocean acidification resulting from increased dissolution of carbon dioxide into the surface waters of the oceans [4] It has been proposed that this broadening of focus from purely toxicological effects to the consideration of more general stressors moves beyond the definition of "ecotoxicology". Van Straalen (2003), in particular, argued that the field had diversified to become Stress Ecology and that, as the effects of anthropogenic toxicants compound existing, natural stressors, exclusive study of their effects in an ecological context was nonsensical. Whilst this proposal is well argued, it is odd of Van Straalen to have specified solely "ecology" as the field when the original field of ecotoxicology was intended to cover all levels of biological organisation from molecular-level causes to ecosystem-level effects. Therefore, the term Stress Biology would seem more appropriate.

The term "ecotoxicology" was coined by René Truhaut in 1969 who defined it as "the branch of toxicology concerned with the study of toxic effects, caused by natural or synthetic pollutants, to the constituents of ecosystems, animal (including human), vegetable and microbial, in an integral context”[3]

The publication in 1962 of [2]

History

Contents

  • History 1
  • Common environmental toxicants 2
  • Exposure to toxic chemicals 3
  • Effects on individuals and entire population 4
  • Effects of ecotoxicity on a community 5
  • Overall effects 6
  • Ways of prevention 7
  • Ecotoxicity testing 8
  • Classification of ecotoxicity 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11
    • Notes 11.1
    • Bibliography 11.2
  • Further reading 12
  • External links 13

[1]

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