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Died 957 CE
Era Islamic Golden Age
Region Islamic civilization
School or tradition
Balkhi school
Main interests
Islamic geography
Estakhri map, from the "Book of roads and kingdoms".
A map by Estakhri from the text Al-aqalim.
A map of the Persian Gulf by Estakhri.

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Farisi al Istakhri (aka Estakhri, Persian: استخری‎‎, i.e. from the Iranian city of Estakhr, b. - d. 957 AD [346AH][1]) was a Persian medieval geographer in medieval Islam and traveler of the 10th century.


  • Early life and family 1
  • Career 2
  • See also 3
  • External links 4
  • References 5

Early life and family


Estakhri created the earliest known account of windmills. His Arabic language works included masalik al-mamalik (مسالك الممالك, "Traditions of Countries") and Suwar al-Aqaaleem ( صور الاقاليم, "Shapes of the Climes").

He was a traveller whose geographical work has been translated into German by Mordtmann. When Istakhari was in the Indus Valley he met another celebrated traveller, Ibn Haukul.[2]

See also

External links

  • World Map of al-Istakhri
  • Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1989). "al-Masālik wa'l-Mamālik".  
  • de Goeje, M.J., ed. (1927). Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum (1927), vol 1: Viae Regnorum descriptio ditionis Moslemicae auctore Abu Ishák al-Fárisí al-Istakhrí (in Arabic). Leden: E. J. Brill. 
  • Ouseley, William, ed. (1800). The oriental geography of Ebn Haukal, an Arabian traveller of the tenth century. London.  - Note: in fact, it is a work by Istakhri


  1. ^ Mojtahed-Zadeh, Pirous. "The Persian Gulf in the Geographical Views of the Ancient World" In Cartographie Historique du Golfe Persique. Edited by M. Taleghani, D. Silva Couto, & J.-L. Bacque-Grammont. Louvain, Belgium: Diffusion, 2006. 17.
  2. ^ Al-Istakhri

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