World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0000216650
Reproduction Date:

Title: Ferrimagnetism  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Magnetochemistry, Ferromagnetism, Magnetic structure, Magnetism, Antiferromagnetism
Collection: Magnetic Ordering, Quantum Phases
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Not to be confused with ferromagnetism; for an overview see magnetism
Ferrimagnetic ordering

In physics, a ferrimagnetic material is one that has populations of atoms with opposing magnetic moments, as in antiferromagnetism; however, in ferrimagnetic materials, the opposing moments are unequal and a spontaneous magnetization remains.[1] This happens when the populations consist of different materials or ions (such as Fe2+ and Fe3+).

Ferrimagnetism is exhibited by ferrites and magnetic garnets. The oldest known magnetic substance, magnetite (iron(II,III) oxide; Fe3O4), is a ferrimagnet; it was originally classified as a ferromagnet before Néel's discovery of ferrimagnetism and antiferromagnetism in 1948.[2]

Some ferrimagnetic materials are YIG (yttrium iron garnet), cubic ferrites composed of iron oxides and other elements such as aluminum, cobalt, nickel, manganese and zinc, hexagonal ferrites such as PbFe12O19 and BaFe12O19, and pyrrhotite, Fe1-xS.[3]


  • Effects of temperature 1
  • Properties 2
  • Molecular ferrimagnets 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Effects of temperature

➀ Below the magnetization compensation point, ferrimagnetic material is magnetic. ➁ At the compensation point, the magnetic components cancel each other and the total magnetic moment is zero. ➂ Above the Curie point, the material loses magnetism.

Ferrimagnetic materials are like ferromagnets in that they hold a spontaneous magnetization below the Curie temperature, and show no magnetic order (are paramagnetic) above this temperature. However, there is sometimes a temperature below the Curie temperature at which the two opposing moments are equal, resulting in a net magnetic moment of zero; this is called the magnetization compensation point. This compensation point is observed easily in garnets and rare earth-transition metal alloys (RE-TM). Furthermore, ferrimagnets may also have an angular momentum compensation point at which the net angular momentum vanishes. This compensation point is a crucial point for achieving high speed magnetization reversal in magnetic memory devices.[4]


Ferrimagnetic materials have high resistivity and have anisotropic properties. The anisotropy is actually induced by an external applied field. When this applied field aligns with the magnetic dipoles it causes a net magnetic dipole moment and causes the magnetic dipoles to precess at a frequency controlled by the applied field, called Larmor or precession frequency. As a particular example, a microwave signal circularly polarized in the same direction as this precession strongly interacts with the magnetic dipole moments; when it is polarized in the opposite direction the interaction is very low. When the interaction is strong, the microwave signal can pass through the material. This directional property is used in the construction of microwave devices like isolators, circulators and gyrators. Ferrimagnetic materials are also used to produce optical isolators and circulators. Ferrimagnetic minerals in various rock types are used to study ancient geomagnetic properties of Earth and other planets. That field of study is known as paleomagnetism.

Molecular ferrimagnets

Ferrimagnetism can also occur in molecular magnets. A classic example is a dodecanuclear manganese molecule with an effective spin of S = 10 derived from antiferromagnetic interaction on Mn(IV) metal centres with Mn(III) and Mn(II) metal centres.[5]

See also


  1. ^  
  2. ^ L. Néel, Propriétées magnétiques des ferrites; Férrimagnétisme et antiferromagnétisme, Annales de Physique (Paris) 3, 137-198 (1948).
  3. ^ Klein, C. and Dutrow, B., Mineral Science, 23rd ed., Wiley, p. 243
  4. ^ C. D. Stanciu, A. V. Kimel, F. Hansteen, A. Tsukamoto, A. Itoh, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Ultrafast spin dynamics across compensation points in ferrimagnetic GdFeCo: The role of angular momentum compensation, Phys. Rev. B 73, 220402(R) (2006).
  5. ^ Sessoli, Roberta; Tsai, Hui Lien; Schake, Ann R.; Wang, Sheyi; Vincent, John B.; Folting, Kirsten; Gatteschi, Dante; Christou, George; Hendrickson, David N. (1993). "High-spin molecules: [Mn12O12(O2CR)16(H2O)4]". J. Am. Chem. Soc., 115 (5): 1804–1816.  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.