World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Fourth World

Article Id: WHEBN0000316656
Reproduction Date:

Title: Fourth World  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Least developed country, Third World, First World, Heavily indebted poor countries, Newly industrialized country
Collection: Country Classifications, Economics, Ethnic Groups, Least Developed Countries
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Fourth World

The Fourth World is an extension of the Three Worlds Theory, used variably to refer to

  1. Sub-populations socially excluded from global society;
  2. Hunter-gatherer, nomadic, pastoral, and some subsistence farming peoples living beyond the modern industrial norm.[1]
  3. Sub-populations existing in a First World country, but with the living standards of those of a Third World, or developing country.


  • Etymology 1
  • Coinage 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Further reading 5
  • External links 6


Fourth World follows the First World, Second World, and Third World classification of nation-state status; however, unlike the former categories, Fourth World is not spatially bounded, and is usually used to refer to size and shape which does not map onto citizenship in a specific nation-state. It can denote nations without a sovereign state, emphasising the non-recognition and exclusion of ethnically- and religiously-defined peoples from the politico-economic world system, e.g. the Romani people worldwide, the Sami, pre-First World War Ashkenazi Jews in the Pale of Settlement, the Assyrians, and the Kurds in the Middle East, Pashtun throughout Afghanistan and Pakistan, the indigenous peoples of the Americas and First Nations groups throughout North, Central and South America, indigenous Africans and Asians, as well as Aboriginal Australians, the Native Hawaiians, and the Māori people of New Zealand. Spanish sociologist Manuel Castells of the University of Southern California Annenberg School for Communication has made extensive use of the term fourth world.


The term originated with a remark by National Indian Brotherhood of Canada. Milando stated that "When Native peoples come into their own, on the basis of their own cultures and traditions, that will be the Fourth World."[2][3]

Since publication of Manuel's The Fourth World: An Indian Reality (1974), the term Fourth World is synonymous with stateless, poor, and marginal nations.[4] Since 1979, think tanks such as the

  • Fourth World Journal
  • International Movement ATD Fourth World
  • Fourth World Center for the Study of Indigenous Law and Politics at University of Colorado at Denver (on
  • Fourth World: Nations without a State - Nadesan Satyendra
  • Fourth World Eye
  • Fourth World Documentation Program

External links

  • Castells, Manuel (1998, second edition, 2000). End of Millennium,  

Further reading

  1. ^ "International day of the world's indigenous people". Asian Center for the Progress of Peoples. 
  2. ^ Hall, Tony (2003). The American Empire and the Fourth World: The bowl with one spoon. McGill-Queen's native and northern series, 34. Montreal; Ithaca: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 238.  
  3. ^ McFarlane, Peter (1993). Brotherhood to nationhood: George Manuel and the making of the modern Indian movement. Toronto: Between the Lines. p. 160.  
  4. ^ Griggs, Richard. "The breakdown of states".  
  5. ^ Ryser, Rudolph C. (September 1993). "Toward the coexistence of nations and states".  
  6. ^ Cloud, Redwing (10 August 2007). "United League of Indigenous Nations formed".  


See also


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.