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Title: Galmudug  
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Subject: War in Somalia (2009–present), Piracy off the coast of Somalia, Somalia, Administrative divisions of Somalia, Politics of Somalia
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Galmudug State
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "My Home State"
Anthem: Qolobaa Calankeed
Capital South Galkayo
Largest city South Galkayo
Official languages
 -  President Abdi Hasan Awale Qeybdiid
 -  Vice-President Abdisamad Nur Guled
Autonomy within federated Somalia
 -  Declared 14 August 2006[1] 
 -  Recognition None 
 -  Total 46,000 km2
17,761 sq mi
Currency Somali shilling (SOS)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Calling code +252 (Somalia)
Internet TLD .so

Galmudug, officially Galmudug State, is an autonomous region in central Somalia. It is bordered to the north by the Puntland region, to the west by Ethiopia, and to the south by other regions of Somalia.

Galmudug's name is derived from a conflation of the names of the Galguduud and Mudug provinces. Unlike the secessionist Somaliland region in northwestern Somalia, Galmudug is not trying to obtain international recognition as a separate nation. It considers itself an autonomous state within the larger Federal Republic of Somalia, as defined by the constitution.


Galmudug is the most centrally located area in Somalia. It is situated about 750 km from Mogadishu, Hargeisa, Bosaso and Harar in Ethiopia. The region is bordered to the east by the Indian Ocean, to the west by Ethiopia, to the north by the Mudug region of Puntland, and to the south by the Hiran region.



On August 14, 2006, the autonomous Galmudug region was established. Mohamed Warsame Ali 'Kiimiko' was elected as the new administration's President, and the southern portion of Galkayo was declared the new polity's capital.[2]

The appellation Galmudug is a conflation of Galguduud and Mudug.

Relations between Galmudug and the Puntland region to its immediate north have historically been tense. However, the two regions gradually made strides toward strengthening inter-regional relations. To this end, representatives of the two autonomous administrations signed an accord on February 2011 in Garowe, the capital of Puntland, wherein both governments officially agreed to cooperate on security, economic and social matters.[3]

Presidential elections

On 1 August 2012, Galmudug's 25-seat parliament elected General Abdi Hasan Awale (Qaybdiid) as the region's new president. He replaced former president Mohamed Ahmed Aalin, who was receiving medical treatment abroad.[2] Qaybdiid had obtained 22 votes versus 1 vote for the other candidate, Abdisamad Nur Guled. Qaybdiid was subsequently sworn in as Galmudug President in a ceremony in Galkayo marking the 6th anniversary since the establishment of the Galmudug administration.[4] During his inauguration speech, Qaybdiid reiterated his pre-election promises to firm up on regional security, expand his administration's control to areas that had not been covered by the regional authority, and foster relations with neighbouring regional states and national bodies.[5]

Official status

As of 2013, Galmudug's official status as a federal state is in the process of being finalized. Qaybdiid's administration has asserted that Galmudug meets the requirements for official state status, as outlined in the federal constitution. As of April 2013, the federal authorities have not accepted this claim.[6] Article 49 of the Provisional Federal Constitution, which oversees the establishment of the Federal Republic of Somalia's constituent states, stipulates that "based on a voluntary decision, two or more regions may merge to form a Federal Member State".[7] Since Galmudug only includes part of the official Mudug region, the federal Interior Minister Abdikarim Guled has urged the local Galmudug authorities to merge with other would be states, including Himan and Heeb, to form one unitary state consisting of two or more regions, in accordance with the constitution.[8]

On 30 July 2014, the Federal Government of Somalia officially endorsed a new Central Regions State, following a signed agreement in Mogadishu between representatives from Galmudug, Himan and Heeb, and [9][10]

On 31 July 2014, the autonomous Puntland regional administration in northeastern Somalia issued a statement rejecting the Central Regions State agreement on the grounds that it contravened certain clauses and articles in the Provisional Federal Constitution and breached Puntland's jurisdiction over the northern part of the Mudug province.[11][12] The Puntland Council of Ministers led by Puntland President Abdiweli Mohamed Ali further expressed dismay over sponsorship of and attendance during the agreement by representatives of the central government and the international community, respectively. It also suspended relations with the Mogadishu authorities, and recalled Puntland's representatives serving in the Federal Parliament, Federal Cabinet and Federal Constitutional Review Committee to the Puntland state capital of Garowe for consultations.[11]

On 9 August 2014, the UN, EU and IGAD envoys for Somalia issued a joint statement assuring the Puntland administration that the new central state of Somalia would not include any territory under Puntland jurisdiction. According to the officials, federal government representatives and signatories had indicated prior to the signing of the central state agreement that the pact would only apply to Galguduud and Galmudug, while North Mudug would remain an integral part of Puntland state.[13] On 24 August 2014, Federal Parliament Speaker Mohamed Osman Jawari announced that Federal MPs hailing from Puntland had begun brokering negotiations between the federal government and the Puntland regional administration.[14]

On 14 October 2014, a three-day conference in Garowe concluded with a 12-point agreement between the Federal Government and Puntland authorities, which stipulates that the earlier Central Regions State pact between the Galmudug and Himan and Heeb regional administrations only applies to the Galguduud and south Mudug provinces.[15]


The Galmudug area in central Somalia is predominantly inhabited by people from the Somali ethnic group, with the Habar Gidir sub-clan of the Hawiye well-represented.[16]


As of 2014, the autonomous Galmudug region's government is led by a President, Abdi Hasan Awale (Qaybdiid). He in turn has the power to appoint and dismiss Cabinet members. In April 2014, President Awale named a new twelve-member Cabinet.[17]

Additionally, the Galmudug administration appoints Governors for each of its constituent provinces. The Governor for the southern, Galmudug-administered portion of the Mudug province is Awes Ali Said.[18]

In November 2014, the Galmudug regional administration in conjunction with the federal Ministry of Interior and the U.S. Tess Agency laid down the foundation for a new government center within its jurisdiction in southern Galkayo. The fourth such local project, the initiative follows the establishment of a new presidential office, social services center and football stadium.[19]


Educational institutions in the Galmudug region are largely in the private sector. However, the Galmudug administration announced plans in March 2014 to open free public schools in the region.[18]

Universities and colleges in Galmudug include Mudug University in South Galkayo.[20]


For air transportation in Galmudug, Hobyo is served by the Obbia Airport.[21]

Additionally, the city has a small seaport.[22]


Map of Galmudug.

Galmudug State occupies the following Districts of Somalia (by region):[23]

In Hobyo region
In south Mudug region

See also


  1. ^ "Galmudug marks its fifth anniversary". SONNA. 14 August 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Somalia: Galmudug Elects New Leader, Pledges Security". SMN. 2 August 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2013. 
  3. ^ An Agreement Jointly Signed by Puntland and Galmudug
  4. ^ "Qaybdid sworn in as Galmudug president". Bar-kulan. 2012-08-15. Retrieved 2012-08-16. 
  5. ^ Beerdhige, Mohamed (2012-08-01). "Galmudug Elects New President". Somalia Report. Retrieved 2012-08-16. 
  6. ^ "Somalia govt 'pursuing leadership change in Galmudug': sources". Garowe Online. 8 April 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  7. ^ "The Federal Republic of Somalia - Provisional Constitution". Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  8. ^ Somali Ministry of Interior and National Security (26 March 2013). "Press Release: Somali Ministry of Interior and National Security". Radio Gaal. Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  9. ^ "Somalia: Federal Govt endorses central state after tripartite deal". Garowe Online. 30 July 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014. 
  10. ^ "Somali Prime Minister welcomes agreement to form new administration in central Somalia". Horseed Media. 31 July 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014. 
  11. ^ a b "Somalia: Puntland withdraws support for Federal Govt". Garowe Online. 1 August 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  12. ^ "SOMALIA: Puntland cuts its ties with Federal Government following announcement of Central State". Raxanreeb. 1 August 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  13. ^ "SOMALIA: UN, EU and IGAD envoys for Somalia send concern letter to Puntland president after the region suspended ties with Mogadishu". Raxanreeb. 17 August 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  14. ^ "SOMALIA: Speaker Jawari hails MPs’ efforts to mediate between FG and Puntland". Raxanreeb. 24 August 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014. 
  15. ^ "Somalia: Puntland clinches deal with Federal Govt". Garowe Online. 14 October 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  16. ^ Transformation Towards a Regulated Economy. WSP Transition Programme, Somali Programme. 2000. p. 9. 
  17. ^ "Galmudug president appoints new cabinet". Goobjoog. 28 April 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  18. ^ a b "Galmudug administration announce to open free schools". Goobjoog. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  19. ^ "Foundation stone laid for Galkacyo Local Government Centre". Goobjoog. 18 November 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  20. ^ "Mudug University". PlacementIndia. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  21. ^ "Obbia Airport (CMO)". World Airport Codes. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  22. ^ """Istanbul conference on Somalia 21 – 23 May 2010 - Draft discussion paper for Round Table "Transport infrastructure. Government of Somalia. Retrieved 31 August 2013. 
  23. ^ "Gamudug". Retrieved 2007-02-27. 

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