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Title: Harad  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Gondor, Middle-earth, Outline of Middle-earth, List of minor places in Middle-earth, Troll-man
Collection: Middle-Earth Regions
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Place from J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium
Haradrim chieftain's standard
Other names Haradwaith, Sunlands
Description Hot region with deserts and jungles
Location South of Middle-earth
Books The Return of the King

In J. R. R. Tolkien's epic fantasy legendarium detailing lands within Middle Earth "Harad' (Sindarin: South, in Quenya: Hyarmen) was the name for the immense lands south of Gondor and Mordor. Called Haradwaith from the people who lived there, it literally means "South-folk", from the Sindarin harad, "South" and gwaith, "people". It is also referred to as the Sunlands.

Aragorn's brief description of Haradwaith - "Harad where the stars are strange"[1] suggests that Harad is close to or in the southern hemisphere, as the world is a globe by the time of The Lord of the Rings and not flat as it was before the Fall of Númenor. To the east of Harad lay the land of Khand.

Historically its northern border was held to be the river Harnen, but by the time of the War of the Ring all the land south of the river Poros was under the influence of the Haradrim. Harad had jungle and desert regions. In its jungles lived animals known as mûmakil, which were elephant-like but larger and more aggressive.


  • Haradrim 1
  • Language 2
  • In other media 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


Founded First Age
Home world Middle-earth
Base of operations Harad
Language various

[2] The Men of Harad were called Haradrim, "South-multitude", or Southrons. "Haradrim" was merely a Gondorian generic description of any of the men that came from south of their borders. They are a collection of proud and warlike races. They are a race of Men and can be extremely unpredictable, especially with the war mumak of Harad.

Harad's tribes included into those of Near and Far Harad, although there were many tribes of the Haradrim, often mutually hostile.

During the Second Age the Haradrim first came into contact with the Men of Númenor, a great island-nation apart from Middle-earth. At first, the Númenoreans came as friends and teachers, but later the Kings of Númenor grew hungry for wealth and power and established territories in Middle-earth. They built a great city in the firth of Umbar, a vast natural harbour on the southern shores of the Bay of Belfalas, and eventually turned the city into a fortified citadel from whose gates they levied great tributes upon the tribes of Harad. Many of the Haradrim were killed or sold into slavery.

From the latter part of the Second Age Númenóreans dominated many of the Men of Harad as well as many other peoples whose lands included a coastline. Shortly before the War of the Last Alliance, two Númenórean lords, named as Herumor and Fuinur, "rose to great power amongst the Haradrim", but their ultimate fate is not recorded.

For many centuries of the Third Age, many Haradrim were still ruled by Black Númenórean Lords, or further north by the Kings of Gondor. But ultimately Harad fell under the influence of Mordor for much of the Age. The Haradrim began to cooperate with the Corsairs of Umbar increasingly from 1540 onwards, and were joined by the Corsairs for the Battle of Pellenor Fields.[2]

At the time of the War of the Ring, the Southrons were in league with Sauron and fought alongside his orc army, riding atop gigantic, elephantine beasts called mûmakil. One of the leaders of the Haradrim at the time of the War of the Ring bore a standard of a black serpent on a red field; King Théoden of Rohan slew him at the Battle of the Pelennor Fields in T.A. 3019.

After the revival of the Reunited Kingdom of Gondor and Arnor in the Fourth Age, peace was made with Harad.

The appearance of the Haradrim is somewhat ambiguous, but Saruman's Orc/Man breeding programs.


Tolkien did not especially work out a notable language for the Haradrim. The only word which is stated to come from a southron language is "Mûmak", the name of the great war-oliphaunts of Harad.[3] Gandalf states that his name in "the south" is "Incánus" (which is Latin, meaning "very grey-haired" and thus may be simply a translation of the original Olórin's name among the Haradrim, just like name "Gandalf" itself is an anglicized Old Norse translation of a Westron name), thought by some to be a Haradrim name, but speculated by Tolkien to actually be a Westron or Sindarin form from Gondor. On early sketches for the Lord of the Rings names as "Barangils" and "Harwan" appear, but it is unsure if Tolkien intended both to be names from a Haradrim language. Despite having a meaning in Quenya ("fate"), the name Umbar is said to be adapted from the natives' language and not from Elvish or Adûnaic.

In other media

In Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy the Haradrim are inspired visually by Aztecs and Pacific Kiribati tribes (rather than an unspecified African influence as in the book) according to the ROTK DVD's Weta Workshop documentary. The Haradrim here fight only from the backs of the Mûmakil, having no cavalry or foot-soldiers as in the book, nor are the associated "half-trolls" or variags of Khand portrayed on film. The apparent leader of the Haradrim force is killed in the film not by Théoden, but by Éomer. They appear in much merchandise for the film trilogy, such as toys, The Lord of the Rings Trading Card Game, and the computer game The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II. They also appear as "Haradrim Slayers" in the computer game, The Lord of the Rings: War of the Ring.

In the movie, Faramir (rather than Sam, as in the book) comments on a dead Southron, philosophizing whether the soldier was actually evil or just goaded or blackmailed into serving the enemy. This was partly to establish Faramir's character in the movie as having more empathy than his proud brother, Boromir. The original line from the novel is frequently cited by Tolkien fans as arguing against perceived racism in the work, a more common topic of discussion in recent years.

The Middle-earth Role Playing game and the Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game, the latter based on Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, both include original material about Harad and the Haradrim. In the former, the Haradrim language is called "Haradaic". In the latter the leader Théoden kills is called "Suladân the Serpent Lord", its forces include assassins called "hasharin", and other names such as "Dalamyr", "Kârna", "Badharkân", "Hidâr", "Nâfarat", "Abrakân", and "Dhâran-Sar" appear. The conceit of Harad representing some African or Arabian equivalent (being south of Middle-earth as "Europe") is more explicit in these materials; most of these original names have no relation to Tolkien's writings, and some, such as "hasharin", are actually Arabic words.

See also


  1. ^  
  2. ^ Tyler, J.E.A. (1976). The Complete Tolkien Companion. 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10010: Thomas Dunne Books. pp. pages=308–209.  
  3. ^ "Mûmakil". The Encyclopedia of Arda. 

External links

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