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Liver failure

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Title: Liver failure  
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Collection: Diseases of Liver, Organ Failure
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Liver failure

Liver failure
A person with massive ascites and caput medusae due to cirrhotic liver failure
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 K72.9
ICD-9-CM 573.8
DiseasesDB 5728
eMedicine med/990
MeSH D017093

Liver failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology. Two forms are recognised, acute and chronic.[1]

Acute

Acute liver failure is defined as "the rapid development of hepatocellular dysfunction, specifically coagulopathy and mental status changes (encephalopathy) in a patient without known prior liver disease".[2]:1557

The diagnosis of acute liver failure is based on physical exam, laboratory findings, patient history, and past medical history to establish mental status changes, coagulopathy, rapidity of onset, and absence of known prior liver disease respectively.[2]:1557

The exact definition of "rapid" is somewhat questionable, and different sub-divisions exist which are based on the time from onset of first hepatic symptoms to onset of encephalopathy. One scheme defines "acute hepatic failure" as the development of encephalopathy within 26 weeks of the onset of any hepatic symptoms. This is sub-divided into "fulminant hepatic failure", which requires onset of encephalopathy within 8 weeks, and "subfulminant", which describes onset of encephalopathy after 8 weeks but before 26 weeks.[3] Another scheme defines "hyperacute" as onset within 7 days, "acute" as onset between 7 and 28 days, and "subacute" as onset between 28 days and 24 weeks.[2]:1557

Chronic

Chronic liver failure usually occurs in the context of cirrhosis, itself potentially the result of many possible causes, such as excessive alcohol intake, hepatitis B or C, autoimmune, hereditary and metabolic causes (such as iron or copper overload, Steatohepatitis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease).

References

  1. ^ O'Grady JG, Schalm SW, Williams R (1993). "Acute liver failure: redefining the syndromes". Lancet 342 (8866): 273–5.  
  2. ^ a b c Sleisenger, edited by Mark Feldman, Lawrence S. Friedman, Lawrence J. Brandt; consulting editor, Marvin H. (2009). Sleisenger & Fordtran's gastrointestinal and liver disease pathophysiology, diagnosis, management (PDF) (9th ed.). St. Louis, Mo.: MD Consult.  
  3. ^ Sood, Gagan K. "Acute Liver Failure". Mescape. Retrieved 14 December 2011. 
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