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Lolium

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Lolium

Lolium
perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Pooideae
Genus: Lolium
L.
Synonyms[1]
poison darnel (Lolium temulentum)

Lolium is a genus of tufted grasses in the bluegrass subfamily of the grass family.[2][3] It is often called ryegrass, but this term is sometimes used to refer to grasses in other genera.

They are characterized by bunch-like growth habits. Lolium is native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa, as well as being cultivated and naturalized in Australia, the Americas, and various oceanic islands. Ryegrasses are naturally diploid, with 2n = 14, and are closely related to the fescues (Festuca).[4][5][6][7]

Ryegrass should not be confused with rye, which is a grain crop.

Species[1][8]
  1. Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. - Eurasia + North Africa from Portugal + Canary Islands to Himalayas + Xinjiang; naturalized in East Asia, Australia, North + South America, various islands
  2. Lolium canariense Steud. - Canary Islands ryegrass - Canary Islands, Cape Verde
  3. Lolium giganteum Lam. - Eurasia from Ireland to China; Bioko
  4. Lolium × hybridum Hausskn. - Assam, Bhutan
  5. Lolium mazzettianum (E.B.Alexeev) Darbysh. - Sichuan, Yunnan
  6. Lolium multiflorum Lam. - Eurasia + North Africa from Portugal + Canary Islands to Himalayas; naturalized in East Asia, Australia, North + South America, various islands
  7. Lolium perenne L. - perennial ryegrass - Eurasia + North Africa from Azores to Kashmir; naturalized in East Asia, Australia, North + South America, various islands
  8. Lolium persicum Boiss. & Hohen. - Persian ryegrass or Persian darnel - from Socotra to China; naturalized in scattered locations in USA + Canada
  9. Lolium pratense (Huds.) Darbysh. - Eurasia + North Africa from Iceland + Azores to Kashmir + Yakutia; naturalized in East Asia, Australia, North + South America, various islands
  10. Lolium remotum Schrank - Indian Subcontinent; sparingly naturalized in scattered locations in Europe + northern Asia
  11. Lolium rigidum Gaudin - stiff darnel, Wimmera ryegrass, annual ryegrass - Eurasia + North Africa from Portugal + Canary Islands to China; sparingly naturalized in scattered locations in Australia + Americas
  12. Lolium saxatile H.Scholz & S.Scholz - Canary Islands
  13. Lolium temulentum L. - Darnel, poison darnel - Eurasia + North Africa from Portugal + Canary Islands to China; sparingly naturalized in scattered locations in Australia + Americas
formerly included[1]

several species now regarded as better suited to other genera: Castellia Enteropogon Festulolium Hainardia Lepturus Melica Vulpia

Cultivation and uses

Lolium contains some species which are important grasses for both lawns, and as pasture and for grazing and hay for livestock, being a highly nutritious stock feed. Ryegrasses are also used in soil erosion control programs. It is the principal grazing grass in New Zealand where some 10 million kilograms of certified seed are produced every year. There is a large range of cultivars. The primary species found worldwide and used for both lawns and as a forage crop is perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Like many cool-season grasses of the Poaceae, it harbors a symbiotic fungal endophyte, either Epichloë or its close relative Neotyphodium, both of which are members of the fungal family Clavicipitaceae.[9][10]

Some species, particularly L. temulentum, are weeds which can have a severe impact on the production of wheat and other crops. Ryegrass pollen is also one of the major causes of hay fever. Tennis courts, including those at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, the venue for Wimbledon, are sometimes planted in ryegrass mixes, depending on the tournament. Glyphosate-resistant Lolium has been reported from Mississippi in 2006.[11]

References

  1. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 83 in Latin
  3. ^ L.LoliumTropicos,
  4. ^ LoliumFlora Europaea:
  5. ^ Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 83. 1753.Lolium hei mai cao shu 黑麦草属Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 243
  6. ^ Flora of Pakistan, Lolium Linn.
  7. ^ LoliumAltervista Flora Italiana, genere
  8. ^ LoliumThe Plant List search for
  9. ^ Schardl CL, Leuchtmann A, Spiering MJ (2004). "Symbioses of grasses with seedborne fungal endophytes". Annu Rev Plant Biol 55: 315–340.  
  10. ^ Cheplick GP (2011). "Endosymbiosis and population differentiation in wild and cultivated Lolium perenne (Poaceae)". American Journal of Botany 98 (5): 829–38.  
  11. ^ Nandula VK, Poston DH, Eubank TW, Koger CH and Reddy KN, Differential response to glyphosate in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) populations from Mississippi. Weed Tech 21: 477–482 (2006).doi 10.1614/WT-06-168.1

External links

  • LoliumFlora Europaea:
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