World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Milton Work

Article Id: WHEBN0004446114
Reproduction Date:

Title: Milton Work  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Charles Goren, Zar Points, Oswald Jacoby, Alfred Sheinwold, Work
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Milton Work

Work in 1897

Milton Cooper Work (September 15, 1864 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – June 27, 1934)[1] was an American authority on whist, bridge whist, auction and contract bridge. At least during the 19th century he was a cricket player, writer, and official.


  • Life 1
  • Other sporting activities 2
  • Work Point Count system 3
  • Selected works 4
  • References 5
  • Sources 6


Work graduated from the Liberty bonds.[1]

Other sporting activities

He was the manager of the Philadelphian cricket team that toured England in 1897. He had earlier played for Belmont Cricket Club between at least 1880 and 1887. He also played cricket, tennis and baseball for the University of Pennsylvania in 1887. He edited the American Cricketer magazine.

In 1897 he was a representative of the Belmont Golf Association at a meeting which founded the Golf Association of Philadelphia.[2]

Work Point Count system

In his writings on bridge during the last seven years of his life, Work adopted Bryant McCampbell’s 1915 suggestion[3] for evaluating balanced hands using a point count method: Ace = 4, King = 3, Queen = 2 and Jack = 1. Although Work had strongly opposed point count methods for 25 years, beginning about 1927 he became a strong advocate of the 4-3-2-1-½ point count. So much so that it became known as the Work Point Count. Subsequently, his employee and disciple Charles Goren adapted it to value all hands. It is still used by players today. In 1927 Work was named American Bridge League (ABL) Honorary Member of the Year.

Selected works

  • Whist of Today: in two parts, 2nd ed.[?] (Philadelphia: Dreka, 1895), 182 pp. OCLC 30571060
"Also available in digital form on the Internet Archive Web site." LCCN 05-26342
  • Auction of To-day, 5th ed.[?] (Houghton-Mifflin Co., 1913), 299 pp. OCLC 5982767
  • Auction Under the Laws of 1915 (Philadelphia: John C. Winston Co., 1915), 104 pp.
  • Auction Declarations (Winston, 1917), 288 pp.
  • Auction Methods Up-to-Date including the new laws of 1920 (Winston, 1920), 332 pp.
  • Auction for Two or Three, with a new code of laws for these games (Winston, 1921), 222  pp. – with "appendix giving improved methods for two-handed Canfield and Russian Bank" OCLC 3867409
  • Par Auction, analysis of play (Milton Bradley Company, 1921), 59 pp. OCLC 6549918
  • Auction Bridge in Twelve Lessons (Milton Bradley, 1922), 270 pp. LCCN 23-125
  • Auction Bridge of 1924 (Winston, 1923), 507 pp.
  • Mah-jongg ... Up-to-Date (Winston, 1924), 177 pp. – Mahjong
  • Auction Bridge Complete (Winston, 1926), 500 pp. OCLC 1577198
  • Bridge Pointers and Tests (Winston, 1927), 192 pp.
  • Contract Bridge (Winston, 1927) 143 pp. – "including the official laws of contract bridge adopted by the Whist club, New York and by the Racquet and Tennis club, New York" OCLC 2617005
  • Auction Bridge for Beginners (Winston, 1928), 136 pp.
  • Contract Bridge For All (Winston, 1929), 243 pp.
  • Lesson hands for use of bridge teachers of the common sense system (Winston, 1930), 25 pp. LCCN 30-16947
  • Common Sense Contract Bridge (Winston, 1931), 369 pp. LCCN 31-1060
  • The Gist of Contract Bridge (Winston, 1931), 56 pp. OCLC 26064152
  • The official system of contract bridge in a nutshell (Winston, 1931), 58 pp. LCCN 31-35688
  • Milton C. Work's short-cut to contract official system (A. G. Spalding Bros., 1931), 183 pp. LCCN 32-1436
  • The official summary of the new standardized official system of contract bridge (Winston, 1933), 83 pp. LCCN 33-8799
  • One hundred and one celebrated hands in contract bridge, bid and played, eds. Work and Olive Avery Peterson (Winston, 1933), 215 pp. OCLC 16727481
  • The Work–Peterson accurate valuation system of contract bridge, Work and Peterson (Winston, 1934), 101 pp. OCLC 3344065
  • Auction Bridge and Mah Jong Magazine, eds. Work and Wilbur C. Whitehead (NY: John H. Smith Pub, 1924) LCCN 25-21970
  • Auction Bridge Magazine, Work and Whitehead (J. H. Smith, 1924–1929) LCCN 33-22385


  1. ^ a b Francis, Henry G., Editor-in-Chief;  
  2. ^ "About GAP". Golf Association of Philadelphia ( Retrieved 2014-06-22.
  3. ^ Manley, Brent, Editor;  


  • Cricket profile
  • Wisden Cricketer's Almanack, 1935 edition, Obituaries section
  • Works by Milton Work at Project Gutenberg
  • Milton C. Work at Library of Congress Authorities, with 33 catalog records – linked as by Milton C.; Milton Cooper; Milton Cooper, 1864–1934; Milton Cooper, 1864– (including 19 "from old catalog")
  • Texts by Milton Work at the Internet Archive
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.