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Pardus (operating system)

Pardus 2011.1 Dama Dama
Developer Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK)
OS family Unix-like
Working state Current
Source model Open source
Latest release Pardus 2013 (March 25, 2013)
Available in Turkish, English
Kernel type Linux (Monolithic)
Default user interface KDE Plasma Desktop
License Various
Official website

Pardus is a Linux distribution developed with support from the Turkish government. Pardus’ main focus is office-related work including the use in Turkish government agencies.[1] Despite that, Pardus ships in several languages. Its ease of use[2] and availability free of charge has spawned numerous communities throughout the world.[3]


  • Development 1
  • Release history 2
  • PiSi package management 3
  • YALI 4
  • KAPTAN 5
  • Reception 6
  • Social events and participation 7
  • Derivatives 8
  • Usage 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11


Pardus was started by Turkish National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology (UEKAE), a division of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK).

The first live CD version of Pardus was a fork of Gentoo Linux.[4] The current version is a fork of Debian.

Release history

Version Date Notes
Live CD 1.0 2005-02-04 Live CD-only fork of Gentoo with Linux kernel 2.6.10.[5]
Live CD 1.1 2005-05-05 Minor update.[6]
1.0 2005-12-26 First release that could be installed on hard drives. It included K Desktop Environment 3.5.0 , Linux kernel,[7]and PİSİ package management system.
2007 2006-12-18 with K Desktop Environment 3.5.5 and Linux kernel[7][8]
2007.1 2007-03-16 with K Desktop Environment 3.5.6 and Linux kernel[7][9]
2007.2 2007-07-12 with K Desktop Environment 3.5.7 and Linux kernel[7][10]
2007.3 included the Linux kernel, COMAR is the configuration manager developed in-house, and Tasma is the custom K Desktop Environment system configuration tool.[7][11]
2008 2008-06-27 with K Desktop Environment 3.5.9 and Linux kernel 2.6.10.[7][12]
2008.1 included the Linux kernel. K Desktop Environment has been updated to 3.5.10, along with other important infrastructure components: Python 2.5, Java 6, Mozilla Firefox 3.0.1, 2.4.1.[7][13]
2008.2 2009-01-31 with K Desktop Environment 3.5.10 and Linux kernel[7][14]
2009 included the kernel. Pardus 2009 used the KDE Plasma Desktop environment and included OpenOffice 3.1, Python 2.6.2, Mozilla Firefox 3.5, Gimp 2.6.6 and also applications like Kontact, Kopete, Kaffeine, K3b, and Amarok.[7][15]
2009.1 2010-01-16 with KDE Plasma Desktop 4.3.4 and Linux kernel[7][16]
2009.2 2010-06-04 with KDE Plasma Desktop 4.4.4 and Linux kernel[7][17]
2011 included the 2.6.37 kernel. Pardus 2011 comes with the latest KDE Software Compilation, KDE SC 4.5.5. The base packages also contains numerous backports and fixes which will improve the stability of your desktop experience significantly. Also included Clementine, K3b, Kontact, Kopete. Pardus 2011 came with Firefox 4.0 as the default browser.[18]
2011.1 included the Linux Kernel, KDE Plasma Desktop 4.6.5, LibreOffice, Mozilla Firefox Web Browser 5.0, Xorg 1.9.5, Gimp 2.6.11, Python 2.7.1, GCC 4.5.3, and Glibc 2.12. With this release numerous bugs have been fixed, 64-bit Skype and Wine packages are now in the 2011 stable repository, YALI has a System Rescue mode, and a 2009-2011 distribution upgrade interface was announced.[19]
2011.2 2011-09-19 includes LibreOffice 3.4.3. Last release using PiSi package management system.[20]
2013 first release based on Debian repository. TÜBİTAK-ULAKBİM announced that Pardus moved to Debian and will be a Debian-based distribution moving forward.[21][22]

PiSi package management

PiSi (; Packages Installed Successfully as Intended; also a Turkish word meaning "kitty", intended as a pun on the distribution's name, which is derived from pardus, the species name of the leopard.) is a package management system that was developed for Pardus. It was used in the initial versions of the distribution, but abandoned in favor of APT since the project moved to Debian base. Pardus 2011.2, released on September 19, 2011, was the last Pardus release that used PiSi.

PiSi stores and handles dependencies for various packages, libraries, and COMAR tasks. Some features of PiSi include:

  • Uses the LZMA compression algorithm
  • Written in Python
  • Package sources are written in XML and Python
  • Database access implemented with Berkeley DB
  • Integrates low-level and high-level package operations (dependency resolution)
  • Framework approach to build applications and tools upon

A community fork of the old Pardus with PiSi package management exists, called PiSi Linux.


YALI (Yet Another Linux Installer) is the first Pardus software a user encounters. Basically, it recognizes the hardware and installs Pardus software from installation media (i.e. CD) to a user-selected hard disk partition. YALI can handle resizing of NTFS partitions found on the disk. YALI means "waterside mansion" in Turkish.


KAPTAN is a desktop greeter, which starts at the first start. It allows a user to change the desktop theme, mouse, keyboard and language settings, date and time, KDE menus, wallpaper, Package Manager settings, smolt, number of desktops. The word Kaptan means 'captain' in Turkish.


Ladislav Bodnar, the creator of DistroWatch, wrote in his round-up of Linux/*nix in 2006 that Pardus is one of the distros he was most impressed by that year "... thanks to unique package management ideas, innovative start-up sequence and general desktop polish ..."[23]

Dmitri Popov, an author of Linux User & Developer, titled his review of Pardus 2011 Beta as the most exciting distro of the year.[24]

Social events and participation


Pardus Community Edition based on Debian released on April 12, 2013.[25]

Pisi Linux and Pardus-Anka projects forked from PİSİ based Pardus. A group of volunteers aim to continue PİSİ and other features of Pardus independently.[26][27]



  1. ^ Sowe, Sulayman K. (2008-11-06). "A new kid on the block: The Turkish Pardus Linux Distribution".  
  2. ^ [5]
  3. ^ "". Retrieved 2015-02-26. 
  4. ^ "Turkey's Pardus distro is easy to use". Retrieved 2015-02-26. 
  5. ^ "Distribution Release: Pardus Live CD 1.0 ( News)". Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  6. ^ "Distribution Release: Pardus Live CD 1.1 ( News)". Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Pardus Linux". Retrieved 2015-02-26. 
  8. ^ "Distribution Release: Pardus Linux 2007 ( News)". Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  9. ^ "Distribution Release: Pardus Linux 2007.1 ( News)". Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  10. ^ "Distribution Release: Pardus Linux 2007.2 ( News)". Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  11. ^ "Distribution Release: Pardus Linux 2007.3 ( News)". Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  12. ^ "Distribution Release: Pardus Linux 2008 ( News)". Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  13. ^ "Distribution Release: Pardus Linux 2008.1 ( News)". Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  14. ^ "Distribution Release: Pardus Linux 2008.2 ( News)". Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  15. ^ "Distribution Release: Pardus Linux 2009 ( News)". Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  16. ^ "Distribution Release: Pardus Linux 2009.1 ( News)". Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  17. ^ "Distribution Release: Pardus Linux 2009.2 ( News)". Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  18. ^ [6]
  19. ^ "Pardus 2011.1 Dama dama release notes" ( 
  20. ^ "[Pardus-devel] Pardus 2011.2 Cervus elaphus". 2011-09-19. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  21. ^ "Distribution Release: Pardus Linux 2013 "Corporate" ( News)". Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  22. ^ [7]
  23. ^ Bodnar, Ladislav (2006-12-18). "Feature: Distributions in 2006". Distrowatch Weekly ( 
  24. ^ "Pardus 2011 Beta Review – the most exciting distro of the year? | Linux User & Developer - the Linux and FOSS mag for a GNU generation". 2011-01-22. Retrieved 2015-02-26. 
  25. ^ [8]
  26. ^ "Pisi Linux Team" (in Turkish). Turkey: Pisi Linux. 2013-03-09. Retrieved 2013-03-13. 
  27. ^ "Reaching out to the Community". Turkey: Pardus-Anka. 2013-03-09. Retrieved 2013-03-13. 
  28. ^ a b c d "Pardus 2009 yolda" (in Turkish). Istanbul:  
  29. ^ "MSB, Pardus ile 2 milyon dolar tasarruf etti" (in Turkish). 2009-04-14. Retrieved 2009-04-14. 
  30. ^ "SGK, Pardus'a göç etmeye hazırlanıyor" (in Turkish). 2009-04-13. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 

External links

  • Official website
  • Pardus Linux at DistroWatch
  • PardusWiki – Multilingual resources
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