World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Project MINARET was a sister project to

  • ECHELON: America's Secret Global Surveillance Network
  • Patrick S. Poole: discreet intelligence agency
  • Charter for sensitive SIGINT Operation MINARET (150)
  • Development of Surveillance Technology & Risk of Abuse of Economic Information | PDF
  • House report on Project Minaret and Project Shamrock

External links

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^
  6. ^


See also

Britain's intelligence agency Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) took part in the program, targeting several anti-Vietnam War dissidents such as Tom Hayden and Jane Fonda. The GCHQ handed over intercepted data of Americans to the U.S. government.[5][6]

Role of Britain's GCHQ agency

In 1975, Senator Frank Church, himself a target, chaired the Church Committee, which disclosed the program.[4]

1,650 U.S. citizens were targeted, including prominent anti-Vietnam War critics. U.S. Senator Howard Baker, civil rights leaders Martin Luther King, Jr. and Whitney Young, boxer Muhammad Ali, New York Times journalist Tom Wicker, the actress Jane Fonda and Washington Post humor columnist Art Buchwald were among those monitored.[4]

Domestic targets


  • Domestic targets 1
  • Role of Britain's GCHQ agency 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

One result of these investigations was the 1978 creation of the unitary authority for warrantless surveillance, which is under Congressional investigation as an apparent violation of the intent of FISA.

Operating between 1967 and 1973, over 5,925 foreigners and 1,690 organizations and US citizens were included on the Project MINARET watch lists. NSA Director, Lew Allen, testified before the Senate Intelligence Committee in 1975 that the NSA had issued over 3,900 reports on the watch-listed Americans.

The 1972 Keith decision by the U.S. Supreme Court became a controversial issue mainly because, even though the court had confirmed that the government had the authority to protect the nation from subversive activity it ruled against the government's ability to use warrantless electronic surveillance for domestic espionage purposes. This controversy became a major case against Project MINARET.

The names were on "watch lists" of American citizens, generated by Executive Branch law enforcement and intelligence agencies, to detect communications involving the listed individuals. There was no judicial oversight, and the project had no warrants for interception.

Intercepted messages were disseminated to the FBI, CIA, Secret Service, Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (BNDD), and the Department of Defense. [1]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.