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Mkhare (region)
Country  Georgia
Seat Akhaltsikhe
Subdivisions 6 municipalities
 • Governor Lasha Chkadua
 • Total 6,413 km2 (2,476 sq mi)
Population (2002)
 • Total 208,000
 • Density 32/km2 (84/sq mi)
ISO 3166 code GE-SJ

districts: Akhaltsikhe, Adigeni, Aspindza, Borjomi, Akhalkalaki and Ninotsminda. There are 5 town, 6 townlets, 67 community and village sakrebulos (assemblies), and 268 villages in the region. Samtskhe-Javakheti is bordered by the regions of Adjara to the west, Guria and Imereti to the north, Shida Kartli and Kvemo Kartli to the north-east and to the east, and by Armenia and Turkey to the south and southwest.

The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, the South Caucasus natural gas pipeline, and the Kars–Tbilisi–Baku railway (under construction) pass through the region.


  • History 1
    • Meskheti 1.1
    • Javakheti 1.2
    • Expulsion of Meskhetian Turks 1.3
  • Population 2
  • Politics 3
  • Tourist attractions 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Other sources 7
  • External links 8


The current division of Georgia into "regions"/Mkhare is a relatively new phenomenon introduced by the Shevardnadze government in the mid-1990s, partly as a response to the cessation of Abkhazia and the South Ossetia-conflict. In this process, Samtskhe-Javakheti was basically formed from the two traditional provinces of Samtskhe and Javakheti.


The ancient tribes of Meskhi (or Moschi) and Mosiniks are the first known inhabitants of the area. Some scholars credit the Mosiniks (or Mossynoeci) with the invention of iron Georgian SSR. After independence from the USSR Meskheti was reinstalled as a province of Georgia, and later cast into the new Samtskhe-Javakheti region.


In early sources, the region was recorded as Zabakha in 785 BC owned by the king Imereti, and another to the Kartli. Those who remained in the place became Muslims.

As a result of the struggles of the Russian Empire with the Ottomans, Russian authorities settled Christian Armenians and Greeks in the area afer 1828.[1] Armenian refugees from the Armenian genocide in the Ottoman Empire came in the early 20th century. Also a large number of Russian Doukhobor sect members settled the region.

Expulsion of Meskhetian Turks

Stalin and settled within an area that overlaps the boundaries of the modern nations of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. Today, many are still dispersed across those countries. Of the 100,000 forcibly deported, a total of 10,000 perished.[2]


The majority of the inhabitants in Javakheti is ethnically Armenian, with a Georgian minority. Armenian population are a majority in Ninotsminda and Akhalkalaki cities.[3] They speak Georgian, Armenian and Russian.[4] The Georgian census of 2002 recorded 207,598 inhabitants in the region, of whom 113,347 (54.6%) were Russians and 1,826 (0.9%) belonged to other ethnic groups..[5]


According to the 2002 census, ethnic Armenians (chiefly concentrated in Akhalkalaki and Ninotsminda districts), are the majority in the region, making up about 54% of the population.[6] They share the region with eastern

  • Friends at Dinner, Foes at Politics (about socio-economic problems of the region)
  • [2] Obstacles Impeding the Regional Integration of the Javalkheti Region, an ECMI working paper (PDF format)

External links

  • Crisis Group Report
  • ICG Report

Other sources

  1. ^ Boeschoten, Hendrik; Rentzsch, Julian (2010). Turcology in Mainz. p. 142.  
  2. ^ as retrieved on 29 Apr 2008 20:59:44 GMT
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ "Ethnic groups by major administrative-territorial units" (PDF). National Statistics Office of Georgia. Retrieved 3 May 2015. 
  6. ^ Statistics Georgia
  7. ^ Georgia’s Armenian and Azeri Minorities, 22 November 2006 (free registration needed to view the full report) --- LINK DOES NOT WORK
  8. ^ Reuters AlertNet - Georgia’s Armenian and Azeri Minorities --- LINK DOES NOT WORK
  9. ^ Reuters Foundation; Alertnet, 22 Nov 2006, [Georgia’s Armenian and Azeri Minorities]


See also

Two of the major tourist attractions are the cave monasteries of Queen Tamar in 1185), Vanis Kvabebi (which dates from the 8th century) and Khertvisi fortress. They are located near the town of Aspindza.

Tourist attractions

[9] There have been demonstrations, police brutality, and killings in this region.[8] adds to perceptions of discrimination and alienation.Tbilisi Lack of dialogue between local Armenians and the national government in [7]

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