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Slutsk

This article is about the town in Belarus. For the town near Saint Petersburg known as Slutsk 1918-1944, see Pavlovsk, Saint Petersburg.
Sluck
Слуцк
City Hall of Sluck
City Hall of Sluck
Flag of Sluck  Слуцк
Flag
Official seal of Sluck  Слуцк
Seal
Sluck  Слуцк is located in Belarus
Sluck
Слуцк
Location of Sluck
Coordinates:
Country
Voblast
Raion
 Belarus
Minsk Voblast
 Slutsk Raion
Founded 1116
Area
 • Total 24.6 km2 (9.5 sq mi)
Elevation 250 m (820 ft)
Population (2009)
 • Total 61,444
 • Density 2,500/km2 (6,500/sq mi)
  [1]
Time zone FET (UTC+3)
 • Summer (DST) FET (UTC+3)
Postal code 223610
Area code(s) +375 1795
License plate 5
Website Official website
Cinema-Theatre "Belarus"

Slutsk (officially transliterated as Sluck, Belarusian: Слуцк; Russian: Слуцк; Polish: Słuck) is a town in Belarus, located on the Sluch River 105 km (65 mi) south of Minsk. As of 2010 its population is of 61,400.[2] Slutsk is the administrative center of Slutsk Raion.

Contents

  • Geography 1
  • History 2
  • Jewish community 3
  • People 4
  • International relations 5
    • Twin towns — Sister cities 5.1
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Gallery 8
  • External links 9

Geography

The town is situated in the south-west of its Region, 26 km (16 mi) north of Soligorsk.

History

Slutsk was first mentioned in writing in 1116. It was part of the Principality of Turov and Pinsk, but in 1160 it became the capital of a separate Slutsk Principality. From 1320–1330 it was part of the domain of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Later it was owned by the Olelkovich and Radziwiłł families, which transformed the city into a center of the Polish Reformed Church with a Gymnasium that existed until 1918. It was part of Russian Empire after Second Partition of Poland in 1793. It was occupied by Germany in 1918 and again between 1941-1944, and by Poland between 1919 and 1920 during Polish Soviet War.

Following the 17th century the town became famous for its manufactories of kontusz belts, some of the most expensive and luxurious pieces of garment of the szlachta. Because of the popularity of the belts made in Slutsk, all the belts worn over the żupan were often called the Belts of Slutsk, despite their real place of origin.

Until World War II and the Slutsk Affair the town was predominantly Jewish, now the population includes no more than 100 Jews.

In 1920 Slutsk was the centre of a major anti-bolshevik uprising known as the Slutsk defence action.

During World War II, Slutsk was occupied by the German Army on 26 June 1941 and placed under the administration of Reichskommissariat Ostland. The period of German occupation ended on 30 June 1944, when troops of the 1st Belorussian Front recaptured the town during the Minsk Offensive of the Red Army.

Jewish community

The first indication of Jews in Slutsk is from 1583 when the town was part of Lithuania.[3] Formal recognition came in 1601. By 1623, Jews owned 16 homes. In 1691, Slutsk became one of the five leading communities of area of Lithuania.[3] By 1750 there were 1,593 Jews. Although this number represented a third of the town's population, 75% of the town's merchants were Jews, and a similar proportion accounted for Jewish ownership and merchandizing of alcohol.[3] After annexation by Russia in 1793, growth of the town slowed, in part due to it being bypassed by the railroad. By 1897 the Jewish community numbered 10,264 inhabitants, or 77% of the town population.[3] They played a central role in the town's markets, particularly in agricultural produce.

Slutsk was not insignificant in terms of Torah study. Among the rabbinic figures who served there were Yehudah Leib Pohovitser, Chayim ha-Kohen Rapoport, Yosef Dov Ber Soloveichik (1865–1874), and Isser Zalman Meltzer.[3] According to legend the Baal Shem Tov visited Slutsk in 1733 at the invitation of Shmuel Ickowicz.[3] Despite this, the town was known for its anti-hasidic misnagdim. The Haskalah and modern Jewish political parties also were represented among the population.[3]

People

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Slutsk is twinned with:

See also

References

  1. ^ "World Gazetteer". Archived from the original on 2013-01-11. 
  2. ^ (Russian) 2010 Belarus population statistics (RAR file format)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g , (19 October 2010), accessed 25 January 2015YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern EuropeAdam Teller, "Slutsk," .

Gallery

External links

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons

  • Home page of the city of Slutsk

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