The sweat lodge or sweat house (also called purification ceremony, ceremonial sauna, or simply sweat) is a ceremonial or ritual event in some cultures, particularly among some North American First Nations, Native American, Scandinavian, Baltic and Eastern European cultures. There are several styles of structures used in different cultures; these include a domed or oblong hut similar to a wickiup, a permanent structure made of wood or stone, or even a simple hole dug into the ground and covered with planks or tree trunks. Stones are typically heated and then water poured over them to create steam. In ceremonial usage, these ritual actions are accompanied by traditional prayers and songs.

World examples

Early occurrences can be found in the fifth century BC, when Scythians constructed pole and woolen cloth sweat baths.

"Vapour baths were in use among the Celtic tribes, and the sweat-house was in general use in Ireland down to the 18th, and even survived into the 19th century. It was of beehive shape and was covered with clay. It was especially resorted to as a cure for rheumatism."[1] These structures were built of stone, and square or corbelled "beehive" versions are often found, mostly in the Irish and Gaelic-speaking areas of Ireland and Scotland, though most seem of relatively recent date. The method of construction, heating the structure, and usage was different from the North American examples, and they seem to have been regarded as therapeutic in function, like the sauna, and perhaps typically used by one person at a time, given their small size.[2]

Native Americans in many regions employ the sweat lodge. For example, Chumash peoples of the central coast of California build sweat lodges in coastal areas[3] in association with habitation sites.

When Finnish immigrants came to America in the 17th century, local Delaware natives called them "sweat lodge men" or "white-men-like-us" because of their habit of going to sauna. Because of that, the Finns got along with native peoples so their houses were not destroyed in the French and Indian Wars.[4]

There are also numerous examples of ritual sweating without any ceremonial or mystical significance. Secular uses around the world include the indigenous people around the Bering Strait, ancient Greeks, ancient Romans, northern Finns and Laplanders, and the so-called "Turkish bath" in England.[1]


Rituals and traditions associated with sweating vary regionally and culturally. Ceremonies often include traditional prayers and songs. In some cultures drumming and offerings to the spirit world may be part of the ceremony, or a sweat lodge ceremony may be a part of another, longer ceremony such as a Sun Dance. Some common practices and key elements associated with sweat lodges include:

  • Training - Most cultures that hold ceremonial sweats require that someone go through intensive training for many years to be allowed to lead a lodge. One of the requirements is that the leader be able to pray and communicate fluently in the indigenous language of that culture, and that they understand how to conduct the ceremony safely. This leadership role is granted by the Elders of the community, not self-designated.
  • Orientation – The door may face a sacred fire. The cardinal directions may have symbolism in the culture that is holding the sweating ceremony. The lodge may be oriented within its environment for a specific purpose. Placement and orientation of the lodge within its environment are often considered to facilitate the ceremony's connection with the spirit world, as well as practical considerations of usage.
  • Construction – The lodge is generally built with great care, and with respect for the environment and for the materials being used. Many traditions construct the lodge in complete silence, some have a drum playing while they build, other traditions have the builders fast during construction.
  • Clothing – In Native American lodges participants usually wear a simple garment such as shorts or a loose dress.
  • Support – In many traditions, one or more persons will remain outside the sweat lodge to protect the ceremony, assist the participants, and aid lodge etiquette. Sometimes they will tend the fire and place the hot stones, if it is a structure that uses stones, though usually this is done by a designated firekeeper.
  • Darkness - Many traditions consider it important that sweats be done in complete darkness.


The most important part of sweat lodge etiquette is respecting the traditions of the culture in question. It is important to know what is allowed and expected before entering a lodge. Traditional Peoples usually place a high value on modesty. Women are usually expected to wear skirts and t-shirts, or short-sleeved dresses of a longer length. In some traditions, nudity is forbidden, as are mixed sex sweats. Some lodge leaders do not allow menstruating women. Perhaps the most important piece of etiquette is gratitude. It is important to be thankful to the purpose of the sweat, the people joining you in the lodge, and those helping to support the sweat lodge.


Physical effects

Even people who are experienced with sweats, and attending a ceremony led by a properly trained and authorized Native American ceremonial leader, could suddenly experience problems due to underlying health issues. It is recommended by Lakota spiritual leaders that people only attend lodges with authorized, traditional spiritual leaders.[5]

There have been reports of lodge-related deaths resulting from overexposure to heat, dehydration, smoke inhalation, or improper lodge construction leading to suffocation.[6][7]

If rocks are used, it is important not to use river rocks, or other kinds of rocks with air pockets inside them. Rocks must be completely dry before heating. Rocks with air pockets or excessive moisture could crack and possibly explode in the fire or when hit by water. Previously used rocks may absorb humidity or moisture leading to cracks or shattering.


The following is a list of reported deaths related to improperly performed, non-traditional sweat lodges:

  • Gordon Reynolds, 43 (died November 21, 1996)[8]
  • Kirsten Babcock, 34 (died 2002)[7][9]
  • David Thomas Hawker, 36 (died 2002)[10]
  • Rowen Cooke, 37 (died 2004)[7][11]
  • Kirby Brown, 38, of Westtown, NY (died October 9, 2009)[12][13][14][15]
  • Lizbeth Neuman, 49, of Prior Lake, MN (died October 17, 2009)[12][15][16]
  • James Shore, 40, of Milwaukee, WI (died October 9, 2009)[12][15][17]

Sedona deaths and Lakota Nation lawsuit

In October 2009, during a New Age retreat organized by James Arthur Ray, three people died and 21 more became ill while attending an overcrowded and improperly set up sweat lodge containing some 60 people and located near Sedona, Arizona.[18] Ray was arrested by the Yavapai County Sheriff's Office in connection with the deaths on February 3, 2010, and bond was set at $5 million.[19][20] In response to these deaths, Lakota spiritual leader Arvol Looking Horse issued a statement reading in part:

Our First Nations People have to earn the right to pour the mini wic'oni (water of life) upon the inyan oyate (the stone people) in creating Inikag'a - by going on the vision quest for four years and four years Sundance. Then you are put through a ceremony to be painted - to recognize that you have now earned that right to take care of someone's life through purification. They should also be able to understand our sacred language, to be able to understand the messages from the Grandfathers, because they are ancient, they are our spirit ancestors. They walk and teach the values of our culture; in being humble, wise, caring and compassionate. What has happened in the news with the make shift sauna called the sweat lodge is not our ceremonial way of life![5]

On November 2, 2009, the Lakota Nation filed a lawsuit against the United States, Arizona State, James Arthur Ray, and Angel Valley Retreat Center site owners, to have Ray and the site owners arrested and punished under the Sioux Treaty of 1868 between the United States and the Lakota Nation.[21] That treaty states that “if bad men among the whites or other people subject to the authority of the United States shall commit any wrong upon the person or the property of the Indians, the United States will (...) proceed at once to cause the offender to be arrested and punished according to the laws of the United States, and also reimburse the injured person for the loss sustained.”[21]

The Lakota Nation holds that James Arthur Ray and the Angel Valley Retreat Center have “violated the peace between the United States and the Lakota Nation” and have caused the “desecration of our Sacred Oinikiga (purification ceremony) by causing the death of Liz Neuman, Kirby Brown and James Shore”. As well, the Lakota claim that James Arthur Ray and the Angel Valley Retreat Center fraudulently impersonated Indians and must be held responsible for causing the deaths and injuries, and for evidence destruction through dismantling of the sweat lodge. The lawsuit seeks to have the treaty enforced and does not seek monetary compensation.[21]

Preceding the lawsuit, Native American experts on sweat lodges criticized the reported construction and conduct of the lodge as not meeting traditional ways ("bastardized", "mocked" and "desecrated"). Indian leaders expressed concerns and prayers for the dead and injured. The leaders said the ceremony is their way of life[5] and not a religion, as white men see it. It is Native American property protected by U.S. law and United Nation declaration. The ceremony should only be in sanctioned lodge carriers' hands from legitimate nations. Traditionally, a typical leader has 4 to 8 years of apprenticeship before being allowed to care for people in a lodge, and have been officially named as ceremonial leaders before the community. Participants are instructed to call out whenever they feel uncomfortable, and the ceremony is usually stopped to help them. The lodge was said to be unusually built from non-breathable materials. Charging for the ceremony was said to be inappropriate. The number of participants was criticized as too high and the ceremony length was said to be too long. Respect to elders' oversight was said to be important for avoiding unfortunate events. The tragedy was characterized as "plain carelessness", with a disregard for the participants' safety and outright negligence.[22] The Native American community actively seeks to prevent abuses of their traditions. Organizers have been discussing ways to formalize guidance and oversight to authentic or independent lodge leaders.[5][21][23][24][25][26][27]

See also


External links

  • – Article on the use of the temazcal or sweatbath among the Tzeltal-Tzotzil Maya of Chiapas, Mexico
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