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Title: Time–manner–place  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Fusional language, Ergative–absolutive language, Direct–inverse language, Analytic language, Agglutinative language
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


In linguistic typology, time–manner–place is a general order of adpositional phrases in a language's sentences: "yesterday", "by car", "to the store". It is common among languages with SOV word orders. Japanese, Dutch and German belong to this category.

An example of this appositional ordering in German is:

Ich fahre heute mit dem Auto nach München.
I drive today with the car to Munich.
I'm travelling to Munich by car today.

The temporal phrase – heute ("today") – comes first, the manner – mit dem Auto ("by car") – is second, and the place – nach München ("to Munich") – is third.

One way to remember the order in German is the mnemonic acronym ZAP: Zeit (time), Art (manner), Platz (place). Another, in English, is the "acronym" TeMPo.

English and French use this order only when the time is mentioned before the verb, which is commonly the case when time, manner, and place are all mentioned.

See also

External links

  • Word Order in German — Part 1: German Syntax
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