World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Voiced retroflex affricate

Article Id: WHEBN0003281070
Reproduction Date:

Title: Voiced retroflex affricate  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Voiced palato-alveolar affricate, List of consonants, Affricate consonant, Voiced retroflex stop, Polish language
Collection: Affricates, Retroflex Consonants
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Voiced retroflex affricate

Voiced retroflex affricate
IPA number 106 (137)
Entity (decimal) ɖ​͡​ʐ
Unicode (hex) U+0256 U+0361 U+0290
Kirshenbaum dz.

The voiced retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɖ͡ʐ, sometimes simplified to .[1] It occurs in such languages as Polish (the laminal affricate ) and Northwest Caucasian languages (apical).

Some scolars transcribe the laminal variant of this sound as /d͡ʒ/, even though it is not palatalized. In such cases the voiced palato-alveolar affricate is transcribed /d͡ʒʲ/.


  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5


Features of the voiced retroflex affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Belarusian лічба [lʲiɖ͡ʐbä] 'number' Laminal. See Belarusian phonology
Chinese Wu [ɖ͡ʐaŋ] 'long' May be a stop [ɖ] instead.
Polish Standard[2][3] em     'jam' Laminal; it's transcribed /d͡ʒ/ by most Polish scolars. See Polish phonology
Southeastern Cuyavian dialects[4] dzwon [ɖ͡ʐvɔn̪] 'bell' Some speakers. It's a result of hypercorrecting the more popular merger of /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡z/ into [d͡z].
Suwałki dialect[5]
Northern Qiang vvdhe [ʁɖ͡ʐə] 'star'
Russian[3][6] джем     'jam' Laminal. It is a very rare variant, and it is usually pronounced as a sequence [dʐ]. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian џем / em [ɖ͡ʐê̞m] 'jam' Laminal. It may be palato-alveolar instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[7] ús [ɖ͡ʐuːs] 'juice' Laminal.
Torwali[8] ? [ɖ͡ʐiɡ̥] 'long' Contrasts with a palatal affricate.
Yi /rry [ɖ͡ʐɪ˧] 'tooth'

See also


  1. ^ Unlike the alveolar and palato-alveolar affricates, there is no obsolete ligature.
  2. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  3. ^ a b Hamann (2004:65)
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ Lightner (1972:67)
  7. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  8. ^ Lunsford (2001:16–20)


  • Hamann, Silke (2004), "Retroflex fricatives in Slavic languages" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 53–67,  
  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 40 (3): 373–378,  
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107,  
  • Lightner, Theodore M. (1972), Problems in the Theory of Phonology, I: Russian phonology and Turkish phonology, Edmonton: Linguistic Research, inc 
  • Lunsford, Wayne A. (2001), "An overview of linguistic structures in Torwali, a language of Northern Pakistan" (PDF), M.A. thesis, University of Texas at Arlington 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.