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Title: Planulozoa  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Salinella, ParaHoxozoa, Eumetazoa, Chordate
Collection: Animal Taxonomy, Animals
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Planulozoa is a proposed clade including the Cnidaria (sea anemones and jellyfish) and the Bilateria (all the more complex animals including flatworms, insects and vertebrates). The clade excludes the Ctenophora (comb jellies).[1][2][3]


Glass sponges


Calcareous sponges


Ctenophora (comb jellies)


(sea anemones and corals)


(Hydra, siphonophores, etc.)

(box jellies)


(jellyfish, excluding




Other Bilateria
(more complex)

Family tree of Cnidaria and the origins of animals[4][3][5]


  1. ^ Andreas Hejnol & Mark Q. Martindale (2008). "Acoel development supports a simple planula-like urbilaterian".  
  2. ^ Jaume Baguñà, Pere Martinez, Jordi Paps & Marta Riutort (2008). "Back in time: a new systematic proposal for the Bilateria".  
  3. ^ a b Andreas Wallberg, Mikael Thollesson, James S. Farris & Ulf Jondelius (2004). "The phylogenetic position of the comb jellies (Ctenophora) and the importance of taxonomic sampling".  
  4. ^ A. G. Collins (2002). "Phylogeny of Medusozoa and the evolution of Cnidarian life cycles" ( 
  5. ^ C. Borchiellini, M. Manuel, E. Alivon, N. Boury-Esnault, J. Vacelet & Y. Le Parco (2001). "Sponge paraphyly and the origin of Metazoa".  
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